Bronchial asthma: pathogenesis, treatment and drugs
Chronic recurrent inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, which include bronchial asthma, treatment and medications for it are focused on reducing exacerbations of the disease.
Asthma, which is the main symptom of the disease occur caused by edematous processes in the bronchi, and increased production of mucus. Hypersecretion of the latter is a kind of immune response of the organism to the emerging pathology.
In asthmatic process an active participation of eosinophils - immune cells whose presence in the blood indicates an allergic reaction. What the body reacts, sometimes to identify can be difficult. It happens that even long-term laboratory tests cannot give an opinion on the allergen with a sufficient degree of certainty. While stimuli can be several. But despite the complexity of the task, the most accurate identification of the source of the calling bouts of the disease, and the maximum possible isolation of the patient are some of the main conditions that drug treatment of bronchial asthma had been successful.
Among the possible causes of asthma include:
- hereditary factor, and according to the latest research and the place and date of birth (time of year);
- professional factor (hazard manufacture);
- the environmental situation in places of residence;
- the presence of harmful habits (alcohol, Smoking, drug abuse);
- food (products);
- the use of excessive quantities of detergents and aerosols;
- contagious viral factors, the presence of fungal diseases;
- constant stress or acute stress.
Pathogenesis and symptoms of bronchial asthma
Pharmacotherapy of asthma should be based on studies of pathogenic processes occurring in the body. Allergic reaction and inflammatory processes in the bronchi are inextricably linked with each other. While the current individual accompanying immunopathological reactions slows down the action of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of bronchial asthma and sometimes even makes them ineffective.
The poor knowledge of the human immune system and mechanisms of immune response, as well as individual neuro-reflex reactions of the human organism make asthma intractable diseases. So in any case it is impossible to treat asthma yourself. From the very firstsigns of developing the disease require advice and constant supervision of a specialist. It is not necessary to attempt to stop attacks and to carry out any preventive measures.
Symptoms manifestations of bronchial asthma has been well studied:
- The cough occurring upon contact with the allergen. It can be called the main symptom for diagnosis, the manifestation of which plays a big role in seasonality.
- The asthma attacks that are contact in nature. The respiratory movements are performed by all areas of the muscles. Breathing may be accompanied by pain.
- Sometimes the disease is accompanied by so-called an aura, rhinitis, watery eyes, skin rashes, sneezing.
Treatment of bronchial asthma
Diagnosis of the disease is in steady-state conditions after the passage of a number of studies.
The patient who received a confirmed diagnosis, you need to tune in to a long complex treatment, including the use of drugs of basic therapy and symptomatic of bronhodilatatorov (these include agonists and xanthine) that cropped attacks of breathlessness and cough. Their effect on the smooth muscles of the bronchial tree is temporary, local in nature.
This type of drugs belongs aminophylline and theophylline. The first is assigned to the urgent and intensive treatment, with a particularly strong and sudden attack, and the second tablets are used to create a prolonged effect. These tools have long been known and are widely used in Pediatrics. Any antihistamines can be taken only on prescription.
Basic therapy allows to reduce the constantly increasing demand in the use of symptomatic drugs and to control the disease.
Medication basic treatment:
- corticosteroids (the most commonly used inhalation);
- antileukotriene drugs designed to reduce the basal tone of the Airways as a whole, facilitating the disease;
- glucosteroids aerosols.
The latter does not have a wide range of side effects of systemic medications, but characterized by pronounced anti-inflammatory action. These include ciclesonide, budesonide, beclomethasone, mometasone, flunisolide and several others. Dosage glucosteroids depends on the degree of severity of the disease. Drugs for the treatment of bronchial asthma,created on the basis of these medications can have complex, combined composition.
Is to elaborate on existing schemes assign glucosteroids in the basic treatment. For a long time used the concept of a stepped approach, in which just increased the dosage of the drug depending on the stage of the disease and the frequency of occurrence of attacks. Recently used a flexible dose approach in which prescriptions may vary depending on the condition of the patient. First, it is done under the supervision of a physician, and subsequently, the patient himself can adjust the frequency of inhalation and the dose of the drug. Studies have shown that the second approach allows you to more effectively reduce the frequency of exacerbations in reducing the cost of treatment. Dose reduction of drugs reduces the occurrence of side effects that necessarily accompany prolonged courses of admission.
Used for symptomatic treatment and expectorants. Contributing to the separation and removal of sputum, reducing its viscosity, loosening the mucus, they make breathing easier and relieve coughing. Very often this kind of drugs are used with draining treatments and massages of the chest. The condition for acceptance is a abundant (more than 3 liters of fluid) drink. Among the most frequently prescribed drugs can be called guaifenesin, Ambroxol, iodine. However, without medical supervision people use expectorants of plant origin is not recommended due to possible allergic reactions.
If the bronchial asthma complicated by infectious diseases, antibiotics are used. However, in the case of the viral nature of the disease antibacterial drugs are not always. It depends on the patient's condition and prognosis of possible complications.
At suspicion on a pneumonia patient with bronchial asthma must be carried out laboratory tests on sputum culture. In order to avoid the possible consequences at the first suspicion of a bacterial infection you need to see a doctor.
Because bronchial asthma is autoimmune in nature, for treatment using immunotherapy. I must say that this type of treatment is actively complement the action of traditional medicines, enables the body to resist the effects of allergens, to switch the immune response, inhibiting the overall picture of allergic inflammation.
The point of therapy is subcutaneous injection of gradually increasing doses of allergen. Usually the course lasts about 90 days. This kindtreatment helps patients with intractable irritants (e.g., dust mite). In addition to injections, recent developments suggest the oral and nasal methods of administration of allergens and histaglobulina, also used in therapy.
Nebulizers in the treatment of bronchial asthma
A very important factor is the speed of delivery of the drug to the bronchi at the time of the attack. To help in this is called the calculated dispersion of the aerosol. To achieve this goal nebulizers - inhalers spray particles of the drug given dispersion, which can most deeply penetrate into the bronchi. There are ultrasonic devices suitable for personal use, and compression, which, because of its large size and significant noise when working, used stationary. The advantage of the latter type is the possibility of spraying suspensions, and oil solutions.
Asthma and drugs
Patients suffering from this disease, is very careful to refer to taking any medicines without prior consultation with your doctor. This is especially true of drugs which are used for colds and viral diseases. It is necessary to pay special attention to prevention, trying to protect themselves from the epidemic, not to treat them medically. Very often, doctors recommend vaccination against seasonal diseases, but before this procedure necessarily requires expert advice.
We should not forget that asthma is contraindicated aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and β-Blockers for treatment of hypertension and coronary heart disease.