Causes and symptoms of asthma
Bronchial asthma, the causes of which are most often associated with lesions of the lungs, is a disease that affects the bronchial tree. First we need to decide what asthma is. Asthma is a chronic disease in which airway starts inflammatory processes non-infectious nature. Bronchial asthma is characterized defeat of the bronchial tree. In addition, the inflammation in this type of asthma is the immune - allergic in nature.
The essence of pathology
The disease is paroxysmal in nature, characterized by broncho-obstructive syndrome and severe asthma. In addition, the disease is also different and quite rapid progression. Get rid of the disease completely is almost impossible. To cure the disease completely, it is required to diagnose in the early stages of the disease. But to diagnose the disease in early stages is extremely difficult. In addition, doctors often confuse the disease with other pathologies and prescribe the wrong treatment, which also contributes to the progression of the disease.
The inflammatory process with the appearance of this disease is very specific with respect to other inflammations of this region. The basis of the inflammation is an allergic component that appear on the background of immune imbalance of the human body; this feature of the disease is due to the paroxysmal character of the course of bronchial asthma.
It should be noted that to allergic components joins a number of other and together they give the specific characteristics of this disease. The factors of this kind include:
- Hyperactivity of the muscle wall of the bronchi. Any external stimulus leads to a sharp spasm.
- On the surface of the mucous membrane there is swelling, which further disrupts the permeability of the bronchi.
- Decreases the secretion of mucus, sputum dyspnea does not appear or is very poorly.
- The consequence of the defeat of the bronchi is a violation of lung ventilation, resulting in pathological changes in the lung tissue.
It is possible to allocate following stages of disease:
- Intermittent asthma, mild course of the disease.
- Easy persistence, the average course of the disease.
- The average persistence, severe disease.
- Persistence of severe, very severe disease.
Causes of disease
Causes of disease are very many, and almost all of them are associated with an increased sensitivity of the bronchi. Some possible causesbackground of bronchial asthma, they are the companions of allergies and support the inflammatory process. Others lead directly to the asthmatic attack. In General, the course of the disease, the influence factors and the manifestation of symptoms each person will be different, depending on the individual characteristics of the organism.
It is possible to allocate the following reasons of bronchial asthma, which are the main:
- A genetic predisposition to developing the disease. If any person is sick with this illness, his children have all the chances that the disease will develop, and they have. Almost one-third of patients there is a genetic predisposition to the disease. In this case, the disease is atopic in nature. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict the appearance of asthmatic attack. When the genetic predisposition of bronchial asthma may develop at any age and to predict its occurrence impossible.
- Professional factors associated with work environment of the person. It is confirmed that the disease often occurs in people who are under the influence of harmful factors in the workplace. These factors include excessively hot or cold air, inhalation of harmful fumes and chemicals.
- The chronic form of bronchitis and various viral infections. Various infections of a viral nature can cause the beginning of the inflammatory process, which will increase the sensitivity of the muscle wall of the bronchi. The validity of this factor confirms the appearance of bronchial asthma on the background of chronic bronchitis, prolonged obstructive process.
- The overall environmental situation of the region and the state of the inhaled air. People living in regions with humid and cold air is more susceptible to disease than the residents of the area with a dry climate.
- Smoking. Tobacco smoke inhaled by man, may cause a inflammation in the bronchial tree. Therefore, many doctors believe that almost every smoker is sick with a chronic form of bronchitis, which ultimately leads to the development of asthma. Smoking in this case acts as a catalyst for permanent inflammatory process.
- Dust. Indoor dust can be a factor in the occurrence of the disease. In this case, the occurrence of asthma due to the fact that indoor dust is a natural habitat for dust mites. In addition to these creatures indoor dust contains many different allergens, like particles, fur, epithelium andchemicals. In this case, the factor of disease is indoor dust. Street dust will be a factor for the disease only if it is to be composed of allergenic components. In this case, the number of allergens increases to flower and tree pollen, wool street animals etc.
- Medication drugs for various purposes. Medicines too can be instigators of the appearance of bronchial asthma. The drugs that can cause asthma include any means of a number of anti-inflammatory drugs. Most often, when the influence of this factor, asthma is insulating in nature, when the attacks occur exclusively in contact with drugs.
Symptoms of the disease
It is vital to detect the disease in its early stages, as in this case to stop the attacks and ease its flow will be much easier and faster. The symptoms that manifest themselves in the early stages include:
- Suffocation and shortness of breath. The state of breathlessness or suffocation can occur as at complete rest, and at physical activity. This condition contributes to the inhalation of polluted air, tobacco smoke, chemical substances, and excessively hot or cold air. In addition, an attack may cause and contact with different kinds of airborne allergens like dust, pollen, wool, etc. choking or shortness of breath comes on suddenly and disappears suddenly.
- Bouts of coughing. Cough is a hallmark of asthma, especially its dry character. Cough often occurs simultaneously with asthma or shortness of breath. A sick person may appear foreign body sensation in the throat, which he tries to remove with a cough, but nothing comes out. The appearance of sputum is observed only at the end of the coughing spell. But even in such cases, the mucus is scant.
- Extended exhalation and shallow breathing. Breathing problems most commonly associated with exhalation. The breath of the patient is normal, but there is difficulty in implementation of the exhalation. With the progression of the disease to carry out the exhalation becomes harder and harder. Each time this process requires large power costs.
- The appearance of wheezing. Hoarseness appears during breathing. Most often a wheeze is a whistling dry character.
The treatment of the disease
Treatment of a pathology selected individually after diagnostic studies and in accordance to the severity of the disease.
Usually therapy is based on corticosteroids, the effect is higher ifdrugs are administered by using nebulizers. To drugs - the corticosteroids can be attributed Aldecin, Becotide, Beclazone, Budesonide, Pulmicort, Angekort, Intal, Tayled. These drugs are taken long courses. In acute cases doctors prescribe more tools, and then base the treatment continues normally. The patient must be under constant supervision of the attending physician, because the treatment depending on the severity and duration of illness can vary.