What should be the emergency treatment of bronchial asthma?
Emergency treatment of bronchial asthma - the key to the survival of the patient during the period of the attack. What is bronchial asthma? Bronchial asthma is a kind of Allergy. The attacks begin abruptly, without emergency care the patient may be fatal. The disease is chronic, is characterized by excessive sensitivity of the Airways, which "violently" react to micro-particles contained in the air. The role of the stimulus can be pollen, dust, perfumes, household chemicals, wool cats set of allergens are highly individual.
In response to the irritant, the airway constricts and begins active production of mucous secretions filling the way and hampering the passage of oxygen. The appearance of bronchial asthma may have different age categories. Most often the disease occurs in children. 66% of sick children recover as they grow older. However, half of those children who have outgrown asthma, have risk to get sick again in older age. The first signs of asthma in most of the cases occur in 4-year-olds. Bronchial asthma first aid efficiently and in a timely manner, allows to save the patient's life.
Varieties of asthma
Depending on the causative agent of asthma attacks, the disease is divided into two types:
- Allergic asthma is the cause of the attack become various allergens. It is known that the allergen can be any substance nearby. The attacks are in most cases the result of dust, pollen, food allergens, medicines, animal hair, cigarette smoke, car exhausts, emissions from factories, colds and nervous excitement. Before the attack observed skin rashes, rhinitis, sweating, dizziness, vomiting, tachycardia, slight cough. Attacks usually happen at night and early in the morning.
- Non-allergic asthma is a consequence of respiratory diseases, the emergence of the attack does not come from the allergen. The cause of asthma can be a chronic inflammation of the respiratory tracts, psycho-emotional instability due to severe brain injuries and failures in the Central nervous system, hormonal disruption in women, medication stimuli (for example, aspirin), tear of the body due to physical activity, hormonal disturbance, bronchial reactivity. In rare cases, for getting rid of asthma is sufficient to cure the cause, others to avoid actions that cause the attack in the third - from attacks to remove it is impossible (when the disease is chronicnature). Non-allergic asthma is several times heavier than allergic, to completely eliminate the pathogens impossible.
According to the severity of asthma is divided into four categories:
- Reasonable unstable. In the first category asthma attacks are rare: no more than twice a week. Attacks at night happen as frequently as twice a month. Degradation occurs within a few hours or days, then passed.
- Reasonable constant. Attacks visit the patient every day, but not less than twice a week. Attacks at night occur more frequently than twice per month. Degradation occurs almost daily, and it depends directly on the physical loads on the body.
- Restrained constant. Attacks happen every day, each week, one attack night. Deterioration happens twice in 7 days and it depends on the loads on the body.
- Serious permanent. The seizures almost stopped, completely limiting human activity. The condition during an attack causes a critical consequence of the deformation of the lungs, in consequence of which stops removal of mucus. In many cases, the critical state is not amenable to stabilization.
Timely emergency care when asthma attack can save the life of the patient. The patient can not engage in self-help, if, for some reason, there is no cure, he was doomed. What is first aid for asthma, everyone should know of the nearest environment of the asthmatic.
The first thing you need to help the patient to sit in a sitting position to breath connects the muscles of the abdomen, the diaphragm is straightened, increasing the space allotted easy. The breathing process easier. We must immediately open the Windows for fresh air. To reduce the stress the patient is given diphenhydramine and the inhaler with the designated medicine. Breathe inhaler need according to the following scheme: 4 breaths to relieve the acute attack, in a calm state to do another two breaths every 10 minutes until full recovery of respiratory functions. Then ensure that the patient rest, giving anti-Allergy and anti-anxiety medications prescribed by the attending physician.
If within 40 minutes of the attack is not stopped, you should immediately call an ambulance and hospitalize the patient.
Aid for bronchial asthma attacks significantly reduces the risk of patient death due to suffocation.
Who is in the group ofrisk
Of developing asthma risk of each. However, people belonging to the risk group, the chance of developing is slightly higher:
- the presence of asthma in relatives;
- work in conditions of high pollution or neglect of the cleaning of the apartment;
- Smoking mother during gestation and lactation.
Treatment and reducing the risk of attack
Person with asthma should follow some of the recommendations significantly reduces the risk of seizures.
In allergic asthma are recommended:
- long walks in the fresh air;
- cleaning of the apartment bedding with down and the carpet to prevent the accumulation of dust;
- every 7 days washing linens with boiling;
- regular ventilation of the apartments and a daily wet cleaning of premises;
- therapeutic breathing exercises;
- cessation of food-allergens (individual list is created by a doctor / allergist);
- to drink mineral water with sodium content;
- be cautious with taking medications;
- in flowering plants only walks with a mask and accompanied by people who know how to give first aid.
In non-allergic asthma recommended:
- not to start chronic infection;
- more walk;
- less nervous;
- to avoid the use of drugs-agents;
- regularly ventilate the room;
- not to load the body of heavy work and work in polluted air;
- to engage in therapeutic physical culture, therapeutic breathing exercises;
- regularly eat sodium mineral water;
- not to experiment with drugs, following the recommendation of the attending physician.
If asthma is a separate disease and not a consequence of the disease completely cured it can not be only to stop the disease, reducing symptoms, frequency and severity of attacks.
This requires daily medication.
Medications should be prescribed by a doctor after a complete examination of the patient to identify the origin of the disease, pathogens attack and determining the individual characteristics of the organism. Medications are divided into two types: symptomatic and basic.
Symptomatic medication relieve spasm of the bronchial tubes, allowing air to circulate freely. This includes inhalers, allowing to stop the attack.
Basic drugs reduce the irritability of the bronchi, inhibiting allergicresponse.
Prevention of asthma
Prevention of asthma is of three types depending on the direction object.
Primary prevention is aimed at preventing the occurrence of asthma: Allergy and chronic respiratory diseases. As objects are people from risk groups: children, people with allergies, people with a tendency to bronchitis. To preventive measures include regular walks, physical exercise, sports, stop Smoking, change of environment of the dwelling (if necessary), preventing the interaction with allergens, hardening and strengthening the immune system.
With the right approach, the risk of a simple Allergy in asthma is low.
Secondary prevention aims to prevent the development of the initial stage of the disease (signs of asthma) in asthma. If necessary, appointed by allergies antiallergic drugs. Taking steps to reduce or avoid contact of the patient with allergens.
Tertiary prevention of asthma is directed at relief of the disease in the patient. It includes primary prevention, regular cleaning, medicinal "diet" and boiling of bed linen. In patients with asthma is assigned to the breathing exercises. As bedding is to use only products made from synthetics.
Asthma sufferers should understand that asthma is not a death sentence, but it requires a certain lifestyle. Under the influence of the disease on the mental state is not superfluous to take courses so-called "schools of asthma", where patients are taught to breathe correctly, the line of conduct at the time of attack and provide them with comprehensive psychological assistance. The state provides jobs for people with asthma, which give the opportunity to work in comfortable conditions: no exercise, dust, stress. Due to the positive attitude of the patient with asthma can live a long full life, not become the "outcast" of society, dropped out of society because of his illness.