How to treat an attack of bronchial asthma?
How does the attack of asthma, what are its causes? Than to cure disease? Such issues are of concern to many patients. Despite the fact that the peak distribution of bronchial asthma occurred in the twentieth century, in our time, this disease is quite common. Scientists note that now one in ten people suffer from asthma.
The etiology of bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma is a permanent inflammatory disease of the Airways, which significantly increases their sensitivity to multiple stimuli. This disease can strike in childhood and in adulthood; has the typical clinical symptoms, namely cough and broncho-obstructive syndromes. Decisive and probably the most dangerous symptom of asthma is considered to be an asthma attack, also known as suffocation.
It is unexpected and sudden appearance of sense of shortness of breath (dyspnea), accompanied by whistling to the complicated breathing of the patient. Key symptoms of bronchial asthma:
- heaviness in the chest;
- periodic shortness of breath;
- wheezing when breathing;
- attacks of dry cough.
The causes that provoke the appearance of bronchial asthma attacks, so-called triggers:
- Smoking (and even passive);
- inhalation of cold air;
- pungent smell;
- contact with various allergens.
- enhanced physical activity;
- the use of aspirin and its analogs (in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma).
Symptoms of shortness of breath usually occur at night or before the morning. The attack of asthma may be terminated either spontaneously or with drugs that enhance the bronchi.
In accordance with the causes of asthma, experts distinguish these types of asthma:
- cough of asthma;
- asthma of physical effort;
- accompanied by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Sources that contribute to the disease
To date, experts still can't identify the true causes and sources of this disease. However, medicine often use the concept of predisposing determinants - those agents internal and external environment that can influence the emergence and further development of asthma.
The factors are:
- Internal. It oftengenetic predisposition. This includes hereditary susceptibility to allergic diseases, the manifestation of asthma at an early age, gender and obesity.
- External. Usually these factors are the very triggers ("trigger mechanisms") that cause asthma attacks. The list of external effects is quite large, among the main factors should be highlighted: respiratory viruses, allergens, active and passive Smoking, occupational irritants (associated with the specifics of the patient), air pollution.
Diagnosis of the disease
Usually, when referring a patient to a specialist (pulmonologist), a doctor first evaluates the patient's complaints and establishes external and predisposing factors. The patient complaints of a painful sensation in the chest, a sudden burst of suffocation, periodic shortness of breath, gives a high probability diagnosis bronchial asthma.
After an initial examination should be a clinical diagnosis, which implies a functional examination of the lungs.
This procedure will help the technician to determine the level disorders of the respiratory system, to determine explicitamente cramps in the Airways and to study the effects of drugs on the bronchi and their sensitivity to various stimuli. However, your doctor may prescribe fibrobronchoscopy and biopsy that will help to obtain reliable morphological signs of asthma.
Along with this assigned and laboratory diagnosis: the patient must take a blood test and sputum, contribute to a proper and fast diagnosis. Bronchial asthma in the blood and sputum of a patient often contains a large amount of cells called eosinophils.
To identify the allergic form of the disease requires the implementation of some immunological tests (for allergic samples and serological studies of the blood). At the time of diagnosis in the analysis of pulmonary secretions smoker markedly purulent inflammation. The same applies to infectious-allergic form of the disease. In the first and in the second case, the treatment is supplemented with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medications.
Treatment of bronchial asthma
Despite numerous and prolonged studies of asthma, at this stage, the disease is considered incurable. However, experts believe that with constant collaboration of the patient with a qualified professional, you can reduce the symptoms and to ease the life of the asthmatic. Asthma treatment involves the use of two typesmedications: anti-inflammatory and symptomatic, which eliminate the asthma attack.
Basic therapy anti-inflammatory medication is provided by the similarity to natural human hormones. Often these are preparations for inhalation, produced in modern medicine in the form of powders, aerosols or liquids for a nebulizer and inhalers. These drugs have a preventive effect, their use will help to control over the disease.
Symptomatic treatment is designed for rapid elimination of an asthmatic attack, it dilates bronchi, relaxes muscle spasm in them eliminates the attack of shortness of breath and cough. Usually symptomatic treatment is common to use inhaled forms of the drug as they minimally affect the activity of other organs.
Therapy of bronchial asthma medicines is accompanied by drug-free treatment, which primarily involves educating patients to live and deal with asthma attacks. The elimination of a variety of excitatory agents that can aggravate the situation of the patient, will also provide an opportunity to achieve greater efficiency in the treatment of such diseases.
A sudden flash of bronchial asthma especially dangerous at an early age, as the child may not be fully aware of what is happening and to explain it to others. To relieve an asthma attack use bronchodilators of short action type. Apply these drugs can be no more than 6 times. In the event that the asthma attack is not interrupted after the respective inhalation and it becomes more urgent to consult a doctor.