The causes of bronchitis
Bronchitis, the cause of which is quite varied, is one of the most common diseases of the respiratory system. In this pathology, the process involved bronchi. Bronchitis sick adults and children regardless of age. Bronchitis, unlike influenza, cannot be passed from one person to another. It occurs most often when hypothermia or exposure to irritating substances.
The disease can occur in acute and chronic forms. Separately, you can select dust bronchitis, which currently applies to professionally-related pathologies. What are the etiology, clinic and treatment of bronchitis?
Classification of bronchitis
Bronchitis is the disease of the respiratory system characterized by inflammation of the bronchi. Bronchitis, depending on the current, divided into acute and chronic. He also happens to be obstructive and non-obstructive. In the first case, the obstruction of the lumen of the bronchi due to edema or large quantities of bronchial secretions.
In the acute form of disease is diffuse inflammation of the whole mucous membrane, against which there is productive cough. In that case, if the cough with bronchitis lasts more than 3 months out of the year, it is about chronic bronchitis. Often, the inflammation of the bronchi which is diagnosed in childhood.
In children there are 3 forms of this disease: simple acute, obstructive, and acute bronchiolitis. The latter is diagnosed in infants. This affects small bronchi. The prevalence of bronchial inflammation is very large. Every person in my life at least once faced with the bronchitis.
There are 3 degrees of severity of sleep apnoea syndrome: mild, moderate and severe. It is known that the lower parts of the human respiratory system include the trachea, large, medium and small bronchi (bronchioles). Inflammation can occur at any level. This depends largely on the severity of the disease.
What are the causes bronchitis? The etiology of acute and chronic forms of the disease are different. Most often acute inflammation of the bronchi has an infectious etiology. In this case, the pathogens can be bacteria and viruses. Among the bacteria the most important are pneumococci, streptococci, Haemophilus wand.
Among the viruses most often stand out the influenza viruses and parainfluenza. Rarely, acute bronchitis microscopic fungi cause allergic or toxic substance. Infectious agent into the respiratory tract with aerosol mechanism of transmission. It can be realizedairborne droplets or airborne dust by.
The main reasons for the formation of acute bronchitis are:
- short-term effects of chemical compounds (nitrogen oxides, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, smoke);
- low production by the body alpha-1-antitrypsin;
- bad ecology;
- the impact of environmental factors.
To provoke acute bronchitis can regular inhalation of cold air, dust, smoke. Bronchitis may be allergic in nature. In this situation, the main reason will be the effects of allergens and increased Allergy susceptibility. It is necessary to know not only the causes of bronchitis, but possible predisposing factors. These include Smoking, alcohol abuse, high humidity ambient air, the climate, the decline in immunity. The risk group includes persons over the age of 50 years.
Causes of chronic bronchitis
The main causes of chronic bronchitis are:
- prolonged exposure to dust, carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide;
- passive or active Smoking;
- high or low humidity air;
- the penetration of germs from the foci of chronic infection tonsillitis, caries, sinusitis;
- impaired function of the cardiovascular system.
- harmful production factors.
Sometimes chronic bronchitis occurs in the background of other diseases of the respiratory system. There is evidence that smokers suffer from bronchitis 2-3 times more often than non-smokers. Tobacco smoke and the substances, including various resins, have an irritating effect on the mucous membranes of the bronchi.
It is established that chronic inflammation is most often diagnosed in citizens living in large cities. All this is due to poor environmental conditions, the fumes in the air. Sometimes, with repeated pneumonia, SARS, there is development of chronic bronchitis. It is important that chronic inflammation often develops in the absence of proper treatment of acute bronchitis.
The importance of dust in the development of bronchitis
Very often this pathology is diagnosed as dust bronchitis. The main reason for the impact of dust. The disease is professionally conditioned and directly related to working conditions. Dust is different: mineral, organic, coarse, medium, fine. Large dust particles do not reach the lower respiratory tract, and are deposited above.
In thisa situation may develop tracheobronchitis. Fine dust with the air masses, when inhaled, can penetrate into the bronchioles. When exposed to dust particles in the bronchi can occur following changes:
- the change in ciliated cells of the bronchi;
- desquamation of the epithelium;
- the violation of developing surfactant;
- the delay in the secret in the lumen of the bronchus;
- increased viscosity of secretions;
- necrosis of ciliated epithelium;
- sclerosis of the bronchial tubes.
In addition, depending on the structure shape, the dust can injure tissue. From dust bronchitis affects people who work in the foundry and metallurgical industry, for shlifovannymi machines in sawmills. Equally important in this situation is the neglect of individual and collective means of protection (masks, respirators, gas masks). In addition, increased levels of this disease on production can be poor performance of mechanical ventilation systems, the lack of dust collectors, electrostatic precipitators, cyclones.
For acute and chronic bronchitis differ.
For acute form of disease is characterized by the following features:
- strong, loud cough with sputum;
- the increase in body temperature;
- runny nose;
- the tension of the abdominal muscles;
The most common symptom is cough. First, it can be dry, but a few days is allocated mucous or Muco-purulent sputum. If complications arise during the possible appearance of shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. Chronic bronchitis occurs with periods of remission and exacerbation. Cough often disturbs the sick in the morning. It's moist, accompanied by wheezing. In the warm season a cough is weakened. Additional symptoms include sweating, weakness, shortness of breath after physical activity. The possible complications of the disease are the development of pneumonia, COPD, emphysema, cardio-pulmonary insufficiency.
Diagnosis and treatment
To put the correct diagnosis, you will need:
- analysis of blood and urine;
- physical examination (auscultation);
- a survey of the patient;
- external inspection;
- conducting x-ray examination of the lungs;
- assessment of respiratory function by spirometry and peakflowmetry;
- sputum tests to determine the causative agent.
The conservative treatment of bronchitis. Acute uncomplicated bronchitis virusetiology does not require specific treatment. In the case of development of complications shown antiviral agents (interferon, ribavirin, rimantadine). It passes itself in about a week. Treating bacterial bronchitis includes antibiotics (Amoxiclav).
Symptomatic treatment involve administration of mucolytics and expectorants in the form of tablets, syrups.
Dry cough you can apply antitussives. Treatment also includes drinking plenty of fluids, breathing exercises, diet, physiotherapy. When the need becomes bronchial lavage. Thus, bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. By treatment, it is important to prevent the transition of acute bronchitis in chronic.