How is the diagnosis of bronchitis?
How is the diagnosis of bronchitis? This question is of interest to many patients.
Bronchitis refers to the acute respiratory diseases, which often appear in a certain season of time. Most often it occurs in autumn when the immune system is weakened. The main symptoms are cough and high fever, which can also be signs of other diseases. Diagnosis of bronchitis allows to identify a particular disease in order to prescribe the right treatment.
People underestimate the seriousness of the situation and prefer to be treated yourself. Yes, of course, there are times when the disease goes away without any consequences for health. However, the insidious disease with its complications. The most common consequences of bronchitis are: asthma, pneumonia, bronchiolitis. In order to understand the danger of this disease, it is necessary to recall the anatomy of the lungs.
How does the bronchi? They belong to the upper part of the lungs and are located at the level of the bronchioles. The walls of the bronchi are lined by three layers:
- The inner layer presents a single-celled epithelium. It relates to the immune system, there is produced the secret, which is important for health. Epithelial cells are lined with cilia, designed to filter the air that we breathe.
- Just below is a musculo-cartilaginous layer. There are more large cells and muscles.
- In the outer layer there is connective tissue - adventitia.
Why develop bronchitis
The causes of bronchitis are different. The main ones are the following:
- After surgeries, the spring and autumn vitamin deficiency, some medications, diseases of the autoimmune nature of the condition of the immune system begins to deteriorate. This creates conditions for the development of bronchitis.
- Prolonged hypothermia disrupts the cilia of the epithelium. In particular, inhalation of cold air for a long period of time contributes to disease.
- Many bad habits, particularly Smoking, lead to the fact that the tissues of the bronchi are exposed to harmful substances. Gradually, the immune system begins to weaken.
- Work in hazardous industries and in a dusty environment leads to the fact that in the lungs accumulate chemicals. They do not have time to appear.
- Viral and bacterial infections are the cause that contributes to the development of the disease.
- Chronic rhinitis contributes to the fact that the inhaled air is not cleared from dust and dirt, in addition, protective functions of the body begin to weaken.
One of the symptoms of bronchitis is cough, which can be called irritant. As a rule, the cough in this disease is dry and sputum is not allocated. The body temperature of the patient increases, there is a condition of General weakness. Depending on the duration of disease and severity of symptoms of bronchitis can be acute or chronic.
What is characteristic of acute bronchitis:
- High temperature.
- State of weakness.
- This form of the disease has a rapid current.
- After a few days the intensity of the cough increases.
- Cough appears in the sputum.
- The patient complains of weakness and fatigue.
Chronic bronchitis does not have such intense symptoms. Aggravation happens at least once every three months.
The main methods of diagnosis of bronchitis
The diagnosis of bronchitis is based on the opinion of a doctor and after the analysis of laboratory studies.
For examination of the patient, there are specific procedures.
The doctor listens to the complaints of the patient on his health. After conducting a clinical examination, which includes examination of the chest of the patient.
With a stethoscope auscultation is performed. This examination method allows for the sounds, which publishes the air passing through the respiratory tract, to determine the disease. If there is wheezing, noises or crepitus in the lungs, auscultation method allows to identify them. Depending on this the doctor can distinguish a similar disease.
For bronchitis is characterized by hard breathing, in the presence of sputum appear rales over the lung tissue. No less effective method of diagnosis is a common blood test.
General analysis of blood one of methods of diagnostics of bronchitis
Using the General analysis of blood can determine the presence of infection in the body, which provokes the development of the inflammatory process. Viral infection leads to the fact that the number of immune cells in the body gradually decreases. ESR data determine the rate of descent.
In that case, if the bronchitis is caused by bacterial infection, the data General analysis of blood show a different picture. A characteristic feature of this disease is an increased level of leucocytes and the presence of band neutrophils.
Computed tomography and radiography
CT is one of the effective methods for the determination of bronchitis and other diseases,which have similar symptoms. Today, the common and other dangerous diseases of the lung such as tuberculosis, cancer, pneumonia. All other methods of examination of patients does not always allow to pinpoint the disease.
Compared to conventional x-rays, which is a method of diagnosis of bronchitis, CT allows you to examine the whole body. You can see the condition of the vessels, changes in the lungs, if any. When examining the use of contrast agents, so the result is accurate enough.
According to the results of x-ray examination can determine enhanced basal pattern bronchi. Bronchitis is characteristic of the location of the large bronchi: they are close to the midline of the cell. The picture of them on the x-ray more contrast.
Diagnosis of chronic bronchitis
If there is a suspicion of chronic bronchitis, conducted a bronchoscopy. This method allows to determine the neoplasm or the presence of a foreign body. To conduct this type of diagnosis using a special apparatus - a bronchoscope. Information about the state of the bronchi, trachea and larynx is supplied to the computer monitor.
Whatever today the effective methods of diagnosis of bronchitis, and only the timely treatment to the doctor will identify the disease at an early stage. We won't forget that bronchitis is an insidious disease that may be the cause of many serious diseases. So to start it is not necessary, as the chronic form of the disease to be treated is very long and hard.