Obstructive bronchitis in children: symptoms and treatment
If diagnosed obstructive bronchitis in children, treatment should be complex. Bronchitis is a very common pathology of the respiratory system among children and adults. Most often, obstructive bronchitis diagnosed in children of preschool age (from 1 to 6 years). In the absence of adequate treatment, the inflammation and obstruction of the bronchi may cause respiratory failure. What are the etiology, clinic and treatment of this disease?
Characteristics of obstructive bronchitis
Obstructive bronchitis is called inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes of different etiology (bacterial, viral, allergic), which interferes with the patency of the breathing tube. The main cause of obstruction is the accumulation of large amounts of phlegm. Often bronchitis is manifested bronchospastic syndrome, against which decreases the lumen of the bronchi. Against the background of external and internal factors in the bronchi result in the following changes:
- disruption of the ciliated epithelium of the bronchial mucosa and its partial destruction;
- the change in composition of the secretion of the bronchi and increase its viscosity;
- the stagnation of secretions;
- violation of pulmonary ventilation.
Distinguish 2 forms of the disease: acute and recurrent. In the latter case there is a recurrence of the disease on the background of pathology of the respiratory tract in influenza, SARS.
Bronchitis in a child caused by different things. Most often it is a complication of other diseases. While initially observed inflammation of the upper respiratory system, then the inflammatory process spreads downwards, reaching the bronchi and even lung tissue.
The causes of obstructive bronchitis in children:
- viral diseases (influenza, SARS, adenovirus infection);
- respiratory mycoplasmosis and chlamydia;
- the presence of parasitic diseases (helminthiasis);
- aspiration when swallowing;
- abnormalities of the esophagus;
- gastroesophageal reflux disease;
- malformations of the body;
- intrauterine pathology (fetal hypoxia, trauma);
- premature birth;
- the penetration of the bronchi foreign objects;
- allergic reactions.
Bronchitis in a child cause the following bacteria: staphylococci, pneumococci, Proteus, Haemophilus coli, Klebsiella. Viral bronchitis is much more common. Most often bronchitis develops in children:
- frequently ill with viral diseases;
- visiting preschool institutions and schools;
- having a genetic predisposition;
- with reduced immunity.
Risk factors for development of obstructive forms of bronchitis are: Smoking, residence in disadvantaged environmental areas, enzyme deficiency, contact with various toxic substances (heavy metal salts, silicon).
The main clinical manifestation of this disease - broncho-obstructive syndrome. Characterized by the following symptoms:
- shortness of breath;
- periodic attacks of suffocation;
The first symptoms appear 2-3 days since the defeat of the respiratory tract. Initially, the children complain of a cough and runny nose. Cough at first dry, paroxysmal. Children become capricious, irritable. Can increase the body temperature.
With the development of the inflammatory process, the cough becomes productive. Sputum may be thick, and expectorated with difficulty. A typical sign of obstruction are wheezing. In young children during a cough, possible cyanosis of the lips. Such symptom indicates respiratory failure.
In young children against the background of such symptoms of possible sleep disorders and appetite. Babies are infants likely to cause nausea and vomiting due to severe cough. Directly after feeding the frequency of food regurgitation.
The main manifestations of obstructive bronchitis in infants:
- persistent cough;
- wheezing, noisy breathing;
- catarrhal phenomena (runny nose, redness of the throat).
In severe disease, the possible emergence of severe shortness of breath. It may occur at rest and during exercise. If the inflammation and obstruction of the bronchi is a consequence of allergic reactions, the temperature remains in the normal range. The symptoms of the disease may bother the patient a week. Then comes improvement. In the case of pronounced symptoms of intoxication and the development of respiratory failure child needs to be hospitalized. Hospitalization to be and infants (up to 1 year).
Treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children can be arranged only after final diagnosis.
- General analysis of blood and urine;
- physical examination (percussion and auscultation of lungs);
- a survey of a sick child or his parentsabout how developed the disease and what preceded it;
- external inspection;
- inspection of the pharynx;
- the measurement of body temperature;
- x-ray examination.
A blood test may reveal a reduced number of leukocytes, increased lymphocytes, ESR acceleration. In the case of allergic bronchitis the nature of the observed eosinophilia. In the process auscultation of the lungs revealed wheezing, hard breathing. Differential diagnostics is conducted with diseases such as bronchial asthma, laryngotracheitis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiolitis. In some cases of impaired patency of the bronchi is observed in ascariasis or toxocariasis. To exclude this pathology is required to analyze the feces.
Treatment of bronchitis in children
If diagnosed obstructive bronchitis in children, treatment should be primarily aimed at improving the patency of the bronchi.
Treatment involves the use of means, thinning phlegm, expectorant drugs, antipyretics, bronchodilators, antispasmodics, excessive drinking, physical therapy, compliance with bed rest and diet.
In the case of allergic bronchitis are appointed antihistamines (claritin, "Zyrtec", "Aerius", "Effective"). They can be used in the form of drops or syrup. Preformed shapes are used much less frequently.
To improve patency of the bronchi bronchodilators are assigned. These medications dilate the bronchi. For children it is preferable to use any sprays or syrups. For the expansion of the bronchi apply tools such as "Salmeterol", "Ascoril", "Berodual", "Salbutamol". The choice of medications takes into account the age of the baby. In the case of bronchospastic syndrome applies "But-shpa" or "Papaverine".
For liquefaction of sputum and its expectoration early shows the "Ambrobene", "Mucosolvan", "Mucosal", "Woken", "Geelix". Antitussives with codeine to take is not recommended. In the case of pronounced paroxysmal dry cough can be used "Stoptussin Fito" and "Pour".
Antibiotics for the treatment of obstructive bronchitis are rarely used. They are shown in the case of persistent fever and severe cough. They will be effective only with the bacterial form of bronchitis. Often treatment for obstructive bronchitis in children include antiviral drugs. For young children it is advisable to use antiviral medication in the form of suppositories (Viferon", "Genferon®"), syrup or drops ("Interferon", "Grippferon").
To treat obstructive bronchitis can be physiotherapeutic methods. Physical therapy is shown only after the elimination of obstruction. Incase of severe disease, your doctor may prescribe corticosteroids. To strengthen the immune system a child needs more fresh air, take vitamins, eat right. You want to limit time in close contact with other children in order to prevent recurrence of the disease.
For a speedy recovery to the kid's parents need to ventilate the room, to observe cleanliness. To better departed sputum, parents can do baby massage. Small children are not recommended to put mustard and apply a warming ointment. Thus, obstructive bronchitis in children is diagnosed very often. Treatment should be done only after doctor's appointments.