How to treat obstructive bronchitis in children?
Bronchitis, this disease in the acute form of obstructive bronchitis in children is the most frequent disease of the child in the first years of life. Respiratory diseases - common and requires serious treatment of the phenomenon, it is important to remember the prevention. In adults these diseases are less common, but children and infants are very susceptible to various forms of bronchitis. This is due to the mechanism of development of the child, so the disease, its diagnosis and treatment have their own characteristics of this age group.
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial mucosa, which can hit hull and the bodies of the upper respiratory tract. Start inflammatory processes in the nose and throat after the ingress of the virus, and later spread to the respiratory tract. Feature of bronchitis is considered that the disease develops in the presence of certain factors and has not spread to other organs of the respiratory system.
Causes of bronchitis and its types
The causes of obstructive bronchitis in children can be different. Most often it is:
- viruses and bacteria;
- significant hypothermia;
- communication with a sick child.
The first place among the instigators of bronchitis is a virus which weaken the immune system and contribute to the infiltration of harmful microbes into the respiratory tract. Another factor is the gas content and dust content of the air that we breathe a child. As the bronchitis is transmitted by airborne droplets, the risk of Contracting them when dealing with a sick person is also very large.
Most cases of bronchitis recorded in autumn-winter season when the temperature decreases, the viruses aktiviziruyutsya, and the body's immune system weakens. Boys and girls suffer equally often. Children have their own features of development, to a certain extent contribute to the occurrence of bronchitis.
Obstructive bronchitis in infants and toddlers the first 3 years of life due to the anatomical features of the bronchial tubes and their components. At this age, the internal organs of children continue to actively shape that becomes a favorable factor for their defeat harmful microorganisms. Bronchial structures at this age long enough, but the gaps are small. The mucociliary apparatus that is responsible for the production of sputum is not sufficiently developed and is not in full force. He is responsible forprotecting the bronchial tubes from the ingress of viruses and bacteria. The immaturity of bronchial smooth muscle contributes to the appearance of spasms even with a small irritation.
The muscles of the chest in babies is weak which hinders the full and correct ventilation. The factors favoring the increase of cases of diseases are unformed immune system and allergies.
In the international classification are three kinds of bronchitis in children:
- acute bronchitis;
- obstructive bronchitis;
- acute bronchiolitis.
Bronchitis is exclusively a viral disease, get them, you can just airborne. Bronchitis in infants is a very rare phenomenon, and developed it in the cases if the baby was born prematurely or has congenital malformations of the respiratory system, and even when contact with sick older children. If the baby goes into bronchitis acute bronchiolitis, possible severe complications such as acute respiratory failure.
Obstructive bronchitis in babies
Bronchitis, the child develops gradually. First, there are the usual runny nose and dry cough, which increases in the evening and night hours. The kid may also complain of chest pain, weakness, fussy, restless, nervous. Often the body temperature rises above 38 °C, having trouble breathing: wheezing in the lungs, shortness of breath.
The acute form of bronchitis lasts no more than a week to cure it for 5-6 days. If mucus becomes transparent, it reflects the acute stage of bronchitis, but the pus is a sign of chronic form of the disease. If treatment is not started on time or is incorrect, the bronchitis threatens severe and serious consequences.
One of them is an ordinary transition of bronchitis into obstructive form. Obstructive bronchitis in children is one of the kinds of destruction of the bronchi caused by inflammation, which manifests as a violation of their patency.
The causes of the disease are different:
- congenital disorders of the respiratory system;
- chest injuries;
The symptoms obstructive bronchitis
The main symptoms of obstructive bronchitis is a heavy cough, cyanosis of the fingers and the crumbs of his lips. Vivid manifestations to establish a form of disease quite easily. It helps to start proper treatment. Acute obstructive bronchitis in children is growing rapidly and affects healthy parts of the respiratory system. In such cases, the boy's condition is deteriorating with every second. Tocharacteristic features of obstructive bronchitis include bouts of coughing at night, especially if the day the baby was active and interacted with my peers.
If we are talking about the baby, his behavior will be restless: toddler causeless crying, can't sleep, tossing in her sleep. If you listen to the breath, you can hear wheezing and rattling, whistling in the chest. Another sure sign of obstructive bronchitis - shortness of breath, which is accompanied by the participation of auxiliary muscles in the breathing procedure. You may notice if you pay attention to the ribs and stomach of the child: the spaces between the ribs are drawn inward, stomach tense, and his chest looks permanently filled with air. One gets the impression that the baby was exposed to the air, and to exhale it.
Dry cough, which eventually passes into the wet with sputum is the main symptom of bronchitis. About it tells the beginning of the progression of respiratory failure, manifested by frequent and intermittent breathing, rapid heartbeat.
The development of obstructive bronchitis in young children depends on the provocateur of the disease and the reactivity of the bronchial system of the baby. Manifest obstruction of spasm of bronchial smooth muscle, mucosal edema and allocation of thick mucus in large quantities.
Moreover, for each such process affect your microorganisms. Some viruses affect the nervous nodes surrounding bronchi, which leads to the loss of their tone and cause spasm. Others cause too abundant secretion of mucus. And the third attack leads to edema of the mucosa, which narrows its lumen. Usually there is a combination of these signs, ie, the body gets several types of bacteria, which leads to increased obstruction.
Most at risk of the disease obstructive bronchitis kids with allergies or who have excess weight. These factors reinforce the tendency to spasm and reactive edema of the bronchi, regardless of the action of microbes.
How to treat obstructive bronchitis?
The healing process in the presence of obstructive bronchitis is quite heavy and long, it consists of various procedures. As soon as the diagnosis or a suspicion of the presence of this type of bronchitis, it is necessary to take urgent measures to combat disease, especially if the baby is a few months old.
The first thing to do is to reduce manifestations of bronchial obstruction and restore patency of the organs.
First, you need to try to calm the baby. Anxiety intensify breathing problems and worsen the permeability of the bronchi. For thisused anti-anxiety medications on a natural basis at the dosage corresponding to the age of the baby.
Should be pulmonary with special preparations, because this is the most effective and efficient method of relief of obstruction.
For infants you can use devices such as a nebulizer or ultrasonic nebulizer. Mixture designed to conduct inhalation must contain glucocorticoids and salbutamol. The method of inhalation is useful in that all drugs by inhalation are delivered directly to the bronchi and the result is visible already after a few minutes the first treatment.
Are required and inhalation of humidified oxygen, which is carried out in parallel with other curative measures. If inhalation does not give the desired effect, is the imposition of bronchodilator with the help of dropper. Mandatory this procedure is in case of an intoxication, accompanied by dehydration.
General recommendations for the treatment of obstructive bronchitis
The necessary measure is to appeal to the specialist. Self-medication in the case of young children is absolutely unacceptable. If the doctor finds the risk of progression from bronchitis to more severe or the baby has a fever, it is required to be hospitalized, because in young children the respiratory system is not functioning fully. As extra measures, you can apply plenty of warm drinks, fever reducing medications, required strict bed rest.
If during the week there was no improvement, will require additional examination. Antibiotics are highly undesirable for the baby, but in severe cases they cannot be avoided. To nominate their child on their own or on the advice of friends is impossible, it should make the attending physician, who will determine the dosage of drugs.
It is worth remembering that babies under one year do not give medicines containing codeine. It is possible to apply traditional methods of treatment of bronchitis, but they must be agreed with a specialist and to act as adjuvant therapy.
For the prevention of bronchitis need to monitor the baby's clothing in winter: not worth much to warm the baby, to avoid excessive sweating and overheating. But hypothermia, too, should not be allowed because it is an important factor contributing to the development of bronchitis. Walks should be held in areas protected from excessive dust and gas contamination, i.e. away from the carriageway, factories and manufacturing plants. The premises where he lives and plays the child, should be regularly aired and perform wet cleaning. Shows and receiving immunomodulatory drugs that help to increasethe body's defenses.