Complications of chronic bronchitis
Complications of chronic bronchitis occur as a result of prolonged progressive or indolent inflammatory process that affects the bronchi. The diagnosis of chronic bronchitis put in if the main symptom of the disease (cough) lasts from several months to 2 years.
Causes of disease
In the occurrence of chronic bronchitis important role is played by the following external factors:
- tobacco smoke;
- atmospheric pollution;
- chemical pollutants;
- adverse conditions of professional activity;
Allocate internal factors that contribute to the development of the disease:
- Pathology of the nasopharynx.
- Frequent respiratory diseases and acute respiratory infections.
- Focal infection of the upper respiratory tract.
- Violation of metabolism.
- Decrease in immunity.
All factors provoke disturbances in the bronchial tree. Symptoms of the disease depends on its activity, the nature and complications. The main symptom of chronic bronchitis is a cough. It is usually moist and is accompanied by release of small amounts of phlegm. Occurs in the morning. Cough worse during cold and damp weather, and weakens in the warm and dry. Moreover, the General condition of the patient almost does not change. For smokers cough becomes commonplace.
Over time the disease progresses. The cough becomes more severe, paroxysmal and hacking. The patient complained of weakness and malaise, fatigue, presence of purulent sputum, night sweats. Even at low loads and shortness of breath. If a person is prone to allergies, you may experience a bronchospasm. It indicates the development of obstructive syndrome or asthma symptoms.
Types of complications of chronic bronchitis
If, despite treatment, the patient's immune system is unable to provide decent resistance, or the disease started, there are complications of chronic bronchitis. They are divided into two options:
- Due to the infection.
- Due to the development of bronchitis.
Complications due to infection
Complications of bronchitis due to infection are divided into:
- Prezista and bronchial asthma;
- inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia);
Predastma and asthma. As bronchifor a long time amazed them mucosa becomes hyperactive. It changes, that is, thickens and becomes loose. The lumen in the bronchi narrows. Difficult breathing. If the bronchitis is accompanied by shortness of breath, it predastma or asthmatic symptoms.
Untimely or improper treatment provokes a stronger and more sustainable damage to mucous membranes. And this leads to suffocation. In this case the patient needs urgent help. Predastma and asthma are a number of changes in the bronchi. When predate changes are reversible. In asthma they are persistent and irreversible.
Diseases develop on the background of allergies. It can be not only a consequence of chronic bronchitis, but also its cause. In both cases, the inflammation and irritation of the bronchi, which lead to their change and reactivity.
Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia). On the background of complications of bronchitis is the inflammation of the lung tissue. In acute pneumonia observed:
- temperature rise;
- the appearance of pain in the chest area;
- the occurrence of dyspnea and cough with sputum.
This often leads to headache and muscle pain, General weakness and fatigue, decreased appetite. While listening to the captured dry and moist rales. On the x-ray clearly shows the change of the lung tissue. The blood analysis shows increase in the number of leukocytes and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In chronic pneumonia symptoms are similar, but the disease is characterized by a protracted nature.
Bronhoektaza. The disease in 50% of cases is typical for patients suffering from lung disease since childhood. Bronhoektaza - steady expansion of the individual segment bronchi resulting from damage to the bronchial wall. It flows with the change in the structure and function of bronchi. In any one of the branches of the bronchus after dividing becomes smaller but retains the diameter of the trunk from where it goes (or becomes wider).
A typical sign for bronhoektaza considered cough with purulent sputum. It occurs regularly in the morning upon awakening and evening before going to sleep. During exacerbation of the disease the temperature rises to 39° C. Increases the amount of sputum. Occasionally there is hemoptysis. During breathing chest pain are rare. Patients complain of weakness and weight reduction. The course of disease is characterized by periods of exacerbation and remission.
Complications due to development of bronchitis
Hemoptysis. It arises due to the presence of prolonged inflammation in the bronchi. This indicates a complication or progression of the disease.If at the end of the coughing phlegm stained with blood, has her streaks or dirty brown color, then it is natural. If the blood appears more frequently or in larger quantities, this may indicate other serious diseases of the bronchi.
Pulmonary failure. Pulmonary (respiratory) failure is a process, when respiratory system is unable to supply oxygen in arterial blood in sufficient quantity. To respiratory failure cause a range of diseases, including chronic bronchitis.
Patients complain about the appearance of shortness of breath, heavy breathing, and even suffocation. The increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide contributes to the headache and loss of consciousness, disturbances of the Central nervous system. Due to the reduction in the level of oxygen in the blood cyanosis occurs. Not excluded cases of cardiac arrhythmia. Sharply lower respiratory rate (up to 12 times per minute) shows that breathing can even stop. Fix sometimes paradoxical breathing.
Emphysema of the lungs. As in chronic bronchitis, exhalation obstructed, the air pressure in the alveoli increases. As a result, they strongly stretched and become tight, lose flexibility. Some parts of the lungs are inflated. Therefore, when you inhale and exhale lungs do not provide the normal level of cuts and sprains. There is a violation of gas exchange in the lungs.
Typical signs of illness:
- shortness of breath (the major and growing topic);
- cyanosis (lack of oxygen);
- the increase in volume of the thorax.
Diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. In this disease the lung tissue is replaced by connective. In the affected areas disturbed gas exchange and elasticity. The pathological changes are the cause of the deformation of the bronchi. This leads to a reduction of the lungs, which become dense and airless.
The main symptom of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis - shortness of breath. It is accompanied by frequent and dry cough. In the early stages of the disease the occurrence of dyspnea associated with active physical exercise. It further manifests itself already at rest. For patients with pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by sharp chest pain, weakness, and fatigue.
Pulmonary heart. Changes in the respiratory tract in chronic bronchitis increase the pressure in the pulmonary circulation. In this case, the heart is full of blood. This causes increasing the right. Changing the work of the authority. Without treatment, the disease progresses.
Myocardial tissue changes, and increased heart failure. Forpulmonary heart disease is characterized by:
- pain in the cardiac region, which cannot be removed by nitroglycerin;
- swelling of the veins in the neck;
- shortness of breath, increasing in the supine position;
- increased sweating;
- thickening of the fingertips and nails.
If you do not start immediate treatment of chronic bronchitis, all complications will inevitably worsen the condition of the patient.
Each disease leads to disability and bronchial asthma to death.