The symptoms and treatment dust bronchitis
Dust bronchitis is considered occupational disease and caused by prolonged inhalation of air with a high concentration of harmful substances. This pathology is directly related to atmospheric pollution by industrial wastes, and the frequency of its manifestation in people evidence of poor organization of production in terms of compliance with environmental regulations.
The etiology of the disease is not associated with the infection and is determined by the mechanical or chemical influence of sediment. In essence dust bronchitis can be attributed to the rather dangerous disease, as long it is fraught with serious complications. Failure to take appropriate measures may cause disruptions in cardiac activity. Only timely detection and treatment of the disease is a guarantee of non-disability and disability.
The essence of pathology
Dust bronchitis is a type of inflammatory disease with impaired function of the bronchi, which develops a diffuse lesion due to physical and chemical effects of aggressive air suspensions for a long time. The main form of chronic dust bronchitis is characterized by a sluggish process with periodic exacerbations. The disease can occur in two forms: particulate and toxic-dust bronchitis.
Pathology refers to occupational diseases, as in the vast majority of cases, linked to industrial or agricultural emissions. In the group of highest risk are workers in the manufacturing associated with the grinding of substances: miners, miners, miners, metallurgists, builders, etc. Increased the probability of defeat is present in the textile and woodworking industries, as well as in agriculture for tedding cotton, linen, etc.
The mechanism of the disease
The mechanism of the disease is associated with the peculiarities of the bronchi, whose task is cleaning of the incoming air mass by inhalation. This function is performed by the ciliated epithelium ciliated, covering the mucous membrane, and glands for the production of mucus, located under the epithelium. In normal mode, all unnecessary particles are captured by the cilia, enveloped in mucus and removed by cutting the muscle plates (cough).
When excessivethe amount of dust (particularly carcinogenic type) bronchi not cope with this function. As a result of captured particles are not completely removed from the bronchi, which leads to gradual accumulation on the mucosa, to block glandular function. Secret mucous becomes thick and affects the nerve endings, causing increased cough. The accumulation of dust particles leads to inflammation and narrowing of bronchial lumen (obturation).
The clinical picture
Constant irritation of the bronchial mucosa aggressive particles leads to the emergence of endobronchitis with violation of the functions of the glandular secretion of mucus. The subsequent development of the process causes a syndrome of bronchial obstruction, which complicates respiratory function, reducing bronchial obstruction and resulting pulmonary emphysema. These pathologies gradually form respiratory failure.
Spasms of the bronchi become a reflex reaction to the effects of dust particles and is a consequence of the sensitising effect of some substances (compounds of chromium, protein, etc.) and microorganisms. The active accession of the latter to the process leading to inflammatory responses and pathogenic microorganisms can cause a chronic form of pneumonia. Often in the development of dust bronchitis and asthmatic inflammatory signs appear together.
The stage of the disease
The degree of development of lesions and the severity of their manifestations are the following stages of dust bronchitis:
- The manifestation of the disease in the form of cough for up to 3 years. Cough dry, sometimes manifested wheezing, periods of exacerbation are rare and short; respiratory failure and changes in blood not found, a radiograph is nearly normal.
- The inflammatory phase. Asthma symptoms combined with inflammatory reaction; cough persistent periods of exacerbation is more severe, with obvious signs of intoxication, appears febrile or subfebrile temperature, wheezing; there are signs of respiratory failure; exacerbations occur with a frequency of 3-4 times per year, for up to 20 days; changes on radiographs and blood work.
- Deep bronchitis. The full set of complications, and pronounced symptoms; exacerbations are frequent and prolonged, and the periods of unstable remission.
The causes of the disease
The main reason dust bronchitis -prolonged (over 12-15 years) inhalation of air with a high content of dust. The most aggressive impact is observed in the following types of inorganic dust (coal, metal, cement containing quartz, talc, glass fiber. Threat and some types of organic dusts: flour, grain, cotton, wool, vegetable, bone, hair.
If dust is present chemically active ingredients, they cause toxicomanias bronchitis. The most dangerous components include sulfur substances, formaldehyde, ethylene glycol, chlorinated hydrocarbons, oxides of metals, nitrites. The impact of the dust reinforce some predisposing factors: work in the cold or heat; increased physical activity, Smoking, past illnesses of the respiratory system congenital or of its pathology.
Symptoms of pathology
The symptoms of dust bronchitis depends on the stage of the disease. In stage 1 occur: dry cough, shortness of breath at high loads, sometimes dry rales; the aggravation - not more often 2 times a year.
Stage 2 symptoms are more pronounced: persistent cough small amount of sputum, increasing during exacerbation; acute respiratory failure; stiffness of breath; wheezing in the lower pulmonary departments; shortness of breath on ordinary exertion; exacerbation up to 4 times per year; expansion of the right pulmonary departments.
The most severe manifestations occur in stage 3: permanent painful cough; constant shortness of breath; asthmatic syndrome; syndrome of pulmonary emphysema, frequent and prolonged periods of exacerbation, respiratory failure; signs of pulmonary heart.
Toxicomanias bronchitis has its own specific symptoms: fever, signs of intoxication (weakness, fatigue, lack of appetite, etc.), mucus with purulent contents, changes in the blood.
The treatment of the disease
Treatment dust bronchitis has a long complex and aimed at the normalization of bronchial patency, restoration of glandular function, elimination of spasms.
To facilitate the removal of phlegm prescribe alkaline inhalations and herbal remedies based on the marshmallow, licorice, mother and stepmother, thermopsis (syrups, decoctions, infusions). Drug therapy is made with the following drugs: acetylcysteine, bisolvon, Mucosolvan, mokobane, fluimucil.
Elimination of spasm is an important medical procedure. With this purpose, appointed group Topeka bronchodilators (theophylline, retail, astolat, euphylong) and terbutaline (Ergil, bricanyl, seronil, etc.). For the expansion of the bronchial lumenapply blockers M-cholinergic receptors. Mainly used aerosol inhalers of of ipratropium bromide (vagos, itrop, urotropin, atrovent).
In addition to drug therapy in the treatment of dust bronchitis is a special breathing exercises. Effective are physiotherapy techniques: hyperbaric oxygenation, electrophoresis of calcium chloride, currents UHF, shortwave diathermy.