What is a tracheal bronchitis: symptoms and treatment of the disease
Pathology of the respiratory system are very common. Often reveals a disease such as tracheal bronchitis. Synonymous with it is tracheobronchitis.
The name speaks for itself. Tracheobronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi, with involvement in the pathological process of the trachea. It is known that the respiratory tract is composed of several divisions: the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi. The latter are of large, medium and small. The smallest bronchi are called bronchioles. Tracheobronchitis can hurt as adults and children. What is the etiology, clinic and treatment of tracheobronchitis?
Characterization of tracheal bronchitis
When tracheal bronchitis occurs inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi. In most cases, the disease occurs against a background of SARS or influenza in the absence of proper treatment. Initially the trachea is inflamed, as it is located above the bronchi. In that case only affects the windpipe, the diagnosis of tracheitis. Currently, there are 3 main types of bronchitis:
In the acute form occurs diffuse inflammation of the mucosa. In this situation, great importance is the infectious factor (the introduction of pathogenic bacteria, viruses). The chronic form of the disease often is diagnosed in individuals who smoke or work in poor conditions. In this situation, the inflammation causes dust penetrating the respiratory tract along with the inhaled air. In some cases, chronic bronchitis is accompanied by other pathology. It can occur in cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases. In the development of allergic forms of inflammation the biggest role is the impact on the human body of allergens.
Possible causes include:
- the presence of airway pathogens (influenza virus, parainfluenza, measles virus, cocci);
- inhalation of dry, cold or hot air;
- General and local hypothermia;
- the transfer of the previously influenza, measles, pertussis, adenovirus infection;
- inhalation of chemicals (nitrogen oxide, and sulfur);
- trauma of mucous membrane of trachea foreign object;
- unfavorable ecological situation;
- hazardous working conditions (work in dusty conditions areas).
As for the precipitating factors include passive and active Smoking, regular alcohol use, difficulty in nasal breathing due to rhinitis or sinus infection, deformity of the chest,decrease in immunity.
Bronchial tracheitis is an acute and chronic. Common clinical symptoms of inflammation are:
- a slight increase in body temperature;
- rapid breathing;
- shortness of breath;
- the appearance of pain in the chest;
- change the color of the face;
Tragedy acute bronchitis begins suddenly and occurs more rapidly than chronic inflammation. Clinical signs depend on whether bronchitis is contagious or not. For acute inflammation of the bronchi and trachea, characterized by the following symptoms: cough, fatigue, hard breathing, wheezing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, pain while coughing. The temperature may be normal (mild form of inflammation) or low-grade. In the case of destruction of the bronchioles of the patient's condition, the person becomes most severe. Is defined by a strong dry cough, pain in the chest and upper abdomen, tension of the abdominal muscles during coughing. The symptoms begin to subside in 4-7 days. In the absence of timely treatment of acute bronchitis may become chronic.
If the inflammation is caused by toxic substances, the symptoms are even stronger. Such patients may present complaints of constant painful cough. Most often, however, there is a mucous sputum. Sometimes it sets in streaks of blood. Over time there is a spasm of the bronchi, and is formed acute respiratory failure. Developing hypoxemia. This may change the color of the skin (they become cyanotic hue).
Signs of chronic bronchitis
Chronic inflammation of the trachea and bronchi is formed in the case of long-term cigarette Smoking or on background not cured of acute tracheobronchitis. The symptoms can be the same. Cough at the same time most productive. It is most intense in the morning. Cough accompanied by pain in the chest, moist rales. Allocated sputum Muco-purulent. Cough and chest pain are able to increase after eating hot food, drinks. In severe cases, may disrupt the function of the heart. Develops angina. Its manifestation is due to the local deterioration of blood supply.
Chronic bronchitis can be attributed to the professionally-related pathologies. From this disease often affects people in contact with dust. Feature of chronic inflammation of the trachea and bronchi that itleads to atrophy or hypertrophy of the mucous membrane. Chronic bronchitis often combined with a sinus infection (sinusitis).
Before providing treatment, is required to establish an accurate diagnosis. There are many diseases with similar symptoms (pneumonia, laryngitis, asthma, silicone, pulmonary tuberculosis). Diagnosis of bronchitis includes:
- a survey of the patient;
- external inspection;
- physical examination;
- conducting x-ray examination of the lungs;
- analysis of urine and blood;
- conducting spirometry or peak flow Metria;
- an ECG and ultrasound of the heart;
- the examination of the sputum.
For minor inflammation of the physical deviations may be missing. May be auscultated breathing hard or wheezing. In the bronchitis of moderate severity are detected dry or moist rales. A blood test in most cases remains within the normal range. In severe revealed signs of respiratory failure. To recognize whether an infectious tracheobronchitis, is microbiological examination of sputum (if she stands). In case of detection of bacteria to evaluate their sensitivity to antibiotics. Additionally, it may take a smear from the pharynx. To exclude pneumonia and tuberculosis x-rayed. In contrast to these dangerous conditions, tracheobronchitis lung tissue is not changed. Additional methods of diagnosis include bronchoscopy. It is in chronic bronchitis and frequent relapses.
Treatment of bronchitis
Tracheal bronchitis is treated conservatively.
When the infectious form shown antiviral or antibacterial drugs.
Of antiviral medications are often used "Anaferon", "Arbidol", "Aflubin", "Viferon", "Genferon®". Of antibacterial agents is preferable to use broad-spectrum antibiotics (protected penicillins, macrolides). The second line drugs include cephalosporins ("Cefixime", "Cephalexin", "Cefazolin", "Ceftriaxone"). Medications taken orally in the form of tablets, capsules or injection method. Tablets recommended to take for mild to moderate tracheobronchitis.
In the case of allergic bronchitis are shown antihistamines. Symptomatic therapy involves the use of mucolytics and expectorants. These include, "ACC", "Mucosolvan", "Mukaltin", "Bromhexine", "Ambroxol". For the treatment of childrenit is recommended to use these funds in the form of syrups. In the acute form of bronchitis can introduce antibiotics and expectorants through a nebulizer. Antitussives apply undesirable. In the productive cough, they can cause obstruction of bronchial sputum. In marked spasm of the bronchi are assigned a bronchodilator agent.
Comprehensive treatment also includes breathing exercises, intake of complex vitamins, following bed rest, cessation of Smoking and intake of alcohol, massage, drinking plenty of fluids, steam inhalation. Thus, the bronchitis often occurs on the background of infectious diseases (influenza, SARS). At observance of all doctor's appointments it goes away after 1-2 weeks.