How is the diagnosis of flu?
Diagnosis of influenza is usually conducted in the clinic. Influenza is a very common disease. Among the many contagious diseases the flu is in the first place because of it is fatal. Age category of people in the statistics of mortality ranges from 65 to 80 years (approximately in 90% of cases).
Who is at risk
The flu and acute respiratory disease is sufficiently similar ailments, they are similar in method of infection and in symptoms symptoms. You need to know that influenza is caused by excessive intoxication, usually often occurs very hard and can lead to numerous complications.
At risk categories of people who have severely weakened immune system.
- children aged less than two years, because their immune systems are not yet fully formed;
- people who suffer from various immunodeficient conditions, e.g., congenital human immunodeficiency virus;
- age category of people from 45 years.
Heavier carries the disease is a category of people:
- people who suffer from chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system, especially if there is congenital or acquired heart disease;
- people who have previously been diagnosed with a lung disease;
- people who have diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and kidney;
- women in the state.
Influenza: diagnosis of the disease
Determine the flu at the time of the epidemic would not be very difficult. In the period when the epidemic is out to determine the flu, will require more complex diagnostics.
The main symptoms of the disease are:
- sudden and severe increase of body temperature (during the day) from about 38 to 40 degrees;
- there is a headache, which is more markedly evident in the fronto-temporal region and above the eyebrows;
- occurs redness and not too much swelling of the face.
On the second or third day catarrhal manifestations occur, namely:
- appears dry intolerable cough;
- there is a change in size of the liver and spleen;
- leukopenia with relative lymphocytosis.
In order to carry out special diagnostics, you need to take swabs from the nasopharynx. To carry out Express-diagnostics is necessary to use the method of processing smears of the mucosa from the inferior turbinate. When using this method, there is an opportunity to detect the virus in skin cells.
Canto use another form of diagnosis is serological. This method may be applied as a retrospective. In practice, more importance is given to the reaction of inhibition of hemagglutination, which was replaced by the most sensitive and promising methods. To find out how the increase in antibody titer, the reaction must be carried out in dynamics (paired serum). The first vaccination is done not later than on the third day of the disease, and the second vaccination, the patient receives approximately the seventh or tenth day.
Influenza, especially during epidemics, this is a fairly standard phenomenon. But if an error occurred while overdiagnosis flu, it leads to the fact that there are many serious consequences of that in a timely manner was not provided proper assistance. First and foremost, this applies to many acute infections: typhus, measles, viral hepatitis, encephalitis.
The occurrence of these infections is characterized by a sharp beginning of the disease, the febrile phenomena and the toxemia. Moreover, the possibility exists of exacerbation of chronic or acute inflammatory processes (pneumonia, appendicitis, pancreatitis, etc.). Atypical for is likely to take them for the flu.
The model type of the flu is much easier to distinguish from the multitude of other respiratory infections. None of these ailments has such acute onset and the symptoms of toxicosis. In all acute respiratory diseases the main symptoms are signs of local lesions and catarrhal symptoms.
Laboratory diagnosis of influenza is considered the most accurate, in order to make the deciphering of the etiology of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections. A more accurate result usually depends on how well all the technology was also used to collect the material and its pre-processing and delivery of samples. In order to confirm or refute the diagnosis, you can use two ways:
- Detection of virus using molecular biological and immunochemical techniques. They help to detect the antigen that initiated the virus.
- PCR is polymerase chain reaction used to detect RNA of influenza virus.
To make the diagnosis of flu in laboratory conditions, it is necessary to collect material, including nasopharyngeal swabs and blood. It is important to know that nasopharyngeal swabs should be taken in the first few days of the disease. To donate blood from a vein for serological analysis should at least twice.
An important roleplays erythrocyte blood sedimentation rate (ESR). The changes that occur in the membranes of red blood cells, lead to the fact that there was a deterioration of the properties of blood, increases the rigidity of the rheological properties, which, respectively, has a greater load on the myocardium. At a time when a person develops the flu virus, ESR increases, which worsens the blood flow in the narrow parts of the microvasculature. The increase in blood viscosity leads to the fact, that there is an aggregation of elements. This is accompanied by strong decrease in volume and ejection velocity of blood flow.
The first rule: avoid getting this virus on mucous membranes of eyes, nose and mouth. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to limit contact with already sick patients. Moreover, it is necessary to remember that the virus has the ability to save some time on some of the items used for personal hygiene as well as on surfaces in the rooms.
You should always wash hands after direct contact with objects, which can be a virus.
It should not touch the dirty hands to the nose, mouth or eyes.
The likelihood of Contracting the disease occurs in humans whose immune system is very reduced and whose body just can't fight off infections. To the immune system was normal, you should follow some rules:
- Proper and balanced diet. Need to daily diet got protein, fats and carbohydrates, and large amounts of vitamins.
- Daily required exercise.
- Have a good rest. Sleep should be not less than 8 hours.
- The maximum you need to try to avoid a nervous overstrain and stress situations.
- Smoking is a strong factor. Smoking not only has a negative effect on the overall resistance to infectious diseases, but also really lowers the immune system.
It is important to know that a timely appeal to qualified personnel will help to avoid the unpleasant and disastrous consequences.