Should we be afraid of h1n1 influenza?
Great fame H1N1 influenza brought mass panic that arose around him in 2009. Who was forced to declare a pandemic. The infection began on the American continent and gradually spread to other countries.
The disease more known as swine flu, as transmitted from pigs to man (person to person too). Is caused by virus of influenza A. the Hype started due to the discovery of a new strain is formed by mixing swine, bird and human viruses. It was subsequently recognized that the panic was totally unfounded. This was confirmed by statistical data, deaths from flu were not recorded more than the usual seasonal.
The n1h1 virus is not something new. It was opened in 1931. For half a century met at the North American and Mexican swine. Gradually he began to detect in humans. They were mostly workers who came into contact by virtue of his activities with sick animals.
In 2009, the who published data that laboratory tests confirmed the identification a little more than half a million cases of swine flu. More susceptible to the new strain were age category 5 years-24 years.
Among Russians in the same year, there were about 2.5 thousand cases. There were deaths.
What kind of pathogen causes the disease?
Initially, the causative agent of the flu could cause infection only in swine. Then, gradually mutating the animals learned to get in the human body. To people getting it mutated the virus and clean the pig can't infect, as too different cellular structure of the animal and the representative of the human race.
In the human body, the virus has continued to mutate and has already gained the ability to spread from person to person. This is already accelerated its spread (for example, for the past century there were only 50 cases) and disturbed the population of the globe. Vaccine against 2009 H1N1 was not.
A person infected with the swine flu virus, becoming the source of infection about a day before he develops flu-like symptoms. This condition lasts, dangerous to others, for about a week, there is still so much time it is contagious. About 15% of cases and began to taketreatment shed virus into the environment for 2 weeks.
The infection occurs in the following ways:
- Airborne, or aerogenic. When you sneeze or cough virus from the patient enters the environment. For those who are near, it is dangerous to be closer than a half to two metres to the source of infection.
- Contact-household. On household items, on the environment (tables, chairs) settle the allocation of the patient. Then they fall on the hands, mucous membranes surrounding. The virus lives outside the body for up to 2 hours, sometimes longer.
The virus can affect anyone, but especially among small (5 and under), seniors over 65, waiting, women, and people with chronic illnesses (e.g., infectious disease, HIV, and several others).
What is the disease?
In the ordinary course of H1N1 influenza a clinical picture similar to seasonal influenza. But there are some differences. The incubation period, i.e. the period of time that lasts from the moment of infection until the first symptoms is between one day to 4-H. Ill complains of high fever (up to 39 degrees, weakness, pain in muscle tissue, aching and lethargy. In addition to the major manifestations of the disease, there are signs of respiratory illness (cough, tickle, lack of air). The symptoms of swine flu differ from the seasonal to the fact that about half of patients experience nausea and vomiting, possible diarrhea.
If the disease be severe, the patient shortness of breath, constant nausea and severe vomiting, blue lips. Noticeable signs of dehydration, convulsions. The consciousness patient is confused. The temperature does not decrease more than 5 days even if the patient is taking antipyretics.
The flu is dangerous complication is pneumonia. It develops about 3 days from the onset of the disease. The patient comes respiratory failure: respiratory rate reaches the level of 40, which is almost three times more than the norm. When breathing active abdominal muscles. A dry cough is bothering the patient. There comes a bluish discoloration of the skin. In some cases, pneumonia leads to pulmonary edema.
In addition to pneumonia, complications can include infectious myocarditis, pericarditis, hemorrhagic syndrome.
After the transfer of the disease in man is produced by short-lived immunity of 1 year.
Diagnosis of H1N1 influenza and its treatment
Accurate diagnosis for the doctor is difficult due to the similarity of the symptoms of swine flu are seasonal. So Dr.relies on the following features:
- was there contact with a person coming from countries in the endemic zones, or not arrived if the patient therefrom;
- gastrointestinal disorders at high temperature;
- strong dry cough in the absence of pain in the throat;
- the development of pneumonia.
To confirm the diagnosis, diagnostic tests, which are taken samples of nasal mucus for research on the presence of the H1N1 virus.
If the diseased suspects that he has swine flu, he should not visit places where a lot of people, or it is better not to leave the house. You should protect your household from possible contamination, why use a medical mask. You need to call the doctor.
The patient can receive treatment in a hospital in case of clarifying the diagnosis of the disease is difficult. If you have a sick child, an elderly person or someone who have chronic illnesses, hospitalitynet and with the moderate form of the disease. If the diagnosis of H1N1 influenza was confirmed, hospitalization is required for all. In the hospital the patient is assigned to bed rest and specific therapy.
To improve protective properties of the body, the patient is prescribed a full diet with a high content of protein, vitamins A, B, C. requires taking large amounts of fluid in order to reduce the fever.
On the recommendation of the doctor the patient takes antiviral drugs within 5 days. The period may be extended due to the severity of the disease.
With the development of pneumonia is assigned antibiotic therapy (if it is proved that the pneumonia came from bacteria). Special attention in the treatment process is given to children and pregnant women. Children cannot take medications aspiranturas, therefore, to reduce the heat prescribed paracetamol or Nurofen.
Pregnant women are advised to drink plenty of fluids just in case if there is no swelling. Medicines should be taken with caution and only after consulting a doctor (not only a physician, but a gynecologist, a leading pregnancy).
What can be done to prevent disease?
The world health organization recommends a few simple rules, observing that it is possible to prevent the development of influenza of any strain:
- wash hands thoroughly using soap and various solutions containing alcohol;
- not to contact with a person who has clear signs of the disease;
- not worth kissing, hugging and shaking hands during the seasonal spread of the disease;
- a sick person should not visit crowded places, and even better - he shouldn't leave the walls of hishome;
- at occurrence of the slightest signs of the flu should go to a clinic.
To avoid infecting strangers, you need for weeks of nowhere to go. As medical preventive measures can be taken Arbidol, kagocel and other antiviral drugs. Against this strain of flu (like many others) produced the vaccine. If the time to get vaccinated, then disease can be avoided. The injection should be done every year.