What to do if you have symptoms of the flu?
What prevention and medication use during influenza what to do to avoid infecting household members, especially children and the elderly, what dangers it carries this infection? To answer these questions it is necessary to understand what is a virus and how it differs from other respiratory infections. Among acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) of particular prevalence is the flu. Types of this virus, there are a few thousand.
This disease is highly contagious, affects the respiratory tract and carries with it the danger of complications. Often called any flu SARS, although this group includes many other viral diseases, for example, rhinovirus, adenovirus, etc. Sometimes the “stomach flu” is called rotavirus infection, which combines the defeat of the respiratory and digestive systems and is not the flu virus irrelevant.
Types of influenza viruses and vaccination
The disease is caused by viruses type A, b and C. Especially dangerous is the virus of type A. Its subtypes can be transmitted from person to person and from animals to humans. As, for example, the sensational outbreak of avian influenza - H1N1. Type b virus has a weaker for and distributed only among the people, as the virus type C. the Infection is transmitted during communication with the ill person, but also through objects, which is the virus.
Epidemics of this disease increase in autumn and winter. Especially this contributes to the cold but wet weather.
For the prevention of influenza infectious disease specialists is recommended to be vaccinated. Despite the view that the virus is constantly mutating, and the vaccine does not protect against all types, the seasonal vaccination greatly reduces the likelihood of getting the flu, protection against the main strains.
It is recommended to be vaccinated a month before the peak of disease, which usually begins in November. Before vaccination, you should consult a therapist.
- the main method of prevention is vaccination;
- less to be in crowded places during seasonal outbreaks of the disease;
- in public places it is recommended to use a gauze bandage which should be changed regularly;
- wash hands thoroughly after the street and after talking with the patients;
- people who contract the flu, it is also necessary to use a mask, preventing this infection;
- usemultivitamin complexes, foods rich in vitamin C;
- eating onions and garlic;
- application of oxolinic ointment in the nasal mucosa;
- products containing Echinacea to have immune-stimulating effect and is indicated for the prevention of colds;
- it is worth noting this group of drugs as immunomodulators. Often they are used independently to prevent influenza and its treatment. Here care must be taken not to use products that affect the immune system, if a person has close relatives with autoimmune diseases such as diabetes first type, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and others;
- antiviral drugs - a vast group that is used to prevent colds and flu including;
- the observance of a day regimen, restful sleep, and respect for your body in the difficult autumn and winter, support the immune system and strengthen its protective functions.
For influenza disease characterized by acute onset. Dramatically increased body temperature. The main difference from respiratory infections (ARI) are weakly expressed catarrhal phenomena the flu. Catarrhal phenomena is a strong runny nose, cough, sore throat, anything that is not typical of influenza. Here the first symptoms of intoxication, fever, “body aches”, headaches, pain in muscles, dry cough. The occurrence of pain behind the breastbone.
Treatment of influenza:
- If you have symptoms of the disease in the first place, you must call a specialist at home. This is especially crucial for seniors and children. Sick flu man at the age of are much more dangerous because of frequent serious complications - heart failure, pneumonia, stroke, accession bacterial infection.
- Strict bed rest will reduce the risk of complications. It is not recommended to carry disease on their feet, this will not only complicate the disease, but can cause infection the surrounding people.
- To comply fully with the instructions of the doctor as the right and proper treatment prescribed by a specialist, will prevent the development of complications.
- Regular ventilation of the room (without cooling) and wet cleaning in the room of the patient.
- Drinking large quantities of liquid will help to cope with intoxication, will protect from dehydration. Compote of black currant or raspberries have slight antipyretic effect, and contain vitamin C.
- Antipyretics. To bring the temperature down is necessary after 38.5 degrees. In pharmacies there is a wide range of antipyreticsfunds. For example, paracetamol.
- Herbal Immunostimulants. Preparations containing Echinacea, Siberian ginseng, ginseng, schisandra.
- Adjuvants, temporarily reinforcing the immune system. For example, the drug Citovir 3.
- Anti-viral drugs. Affect the virus or inhibit its ability to reproduce. The drugs are designed to reduce the duration of the disease and prevent possible complications. Such drugs refers Ingavirin, who is appointed for people suffering from A and b types of influenza, adenovirus infection. Arbidol is used for patients with influenza A and b, for combination treatment of rotavirus infection. Rimantadine is used to treat subtypes of influenza A.
- The interferon drugs. Used to treat SARS and other viral infections. The use of these drugs should be discussed with the doctor. The drugs include interferon Viferon, Kipferon, Cycloferon.
- The immunomodulators. For example, Kagocel, which is often used in the early days of the disease. Tilorona, Polyoxidonium, Panavir, Izoprinozin.
- Chelators reduce the symptoms of intoxication. Enterosgel, Polisorb.
To recover after the disease will help rest and lack of stress. Good sleep: as you know, the best time to sleep from ten o'clock in the evening. Nutrition. Include more fresh fruits and vegetables. Eat enough protein with meat and fish. Continue to drink more water and fresh juices. Eat foods rich in vitamin C. to Use herbal tinctures of Echinacea, Siberian ginseng, schisandra. A little exercise - a fast walk and light exercises.
Complications of influenza
Weakened immunity, elderly and children's age, pregnancy, severe concomitant pathology, the transfer of disease in the feet increases the risk of complications.
The most frequent are:
- Pulmonary complications. Pneumonia arise upon accession, bacterial or viral flora. Symptoms are fever up to 39 degrees or higher, dry cough, shortness of breath.
- The next common complication is sinusitis. This is an inflammation of the maxillary (maxillary) sinuses. Symptoms - headache, toothache pain, discharge and nasal congestion.
- Cardiac complications. Manifest heart pain, shortness of breath. The flu virus causes inflammation of the myocardium may develop heart failure.
- Inflammation of the middle ear, or otitis media. Signs of otitis include pain and discharge from ear, fever.
- Renal failure, pyelonephritis.
In addition, the flu virus can enter the Central nervous system, causing neuritis, meningitis, arachnoiditis. The occurrence of all of the abovesymptoms require immediate referral to a specialist.