Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis
Common cold does not always have an infectious nature. The reason it may be allergic. Allergic rhinitis is very common. But not always people realize that the malaise is due to an allergic reaction. Indeed, at first glance symptoms of allergic rhinitis did not differ from rhinitis due to the common cold. People can suffer from symptoms of allergic rhinitis and take no measures for its treatment. Not treated in time, the Allergy can go into a chronic state and trigger the development of serious pathologies. How to recognize allergic rhinitis?
What is allergic rhinitis?
Allergic rhinitis is a disorder of the nasal mucosa. It is called hay fever. The mucous membrane becomes inflamed under the influence of a substance - the allergen. The disease is accompanied by sneezing, nasal discharge, impaired nasal breathing. The patient can watering eyes and swelling of the eyelids. People are constantly talking "nose", gosavi. Sometimes nasal breathing is virtually impossible because of severe swelling. Cihelny reflex becomes paroxysmal form. Unrestrained patient may sneeze many times in a row. Nose felt itchy and tingly. Such as exhaust man.
The disease is year-round and seasonal. Seasonal allergic rhinitis occurring in a patient with the seasonal phenomena. After the change of the season, the patient feels a sharp relief. Year-round allergic rhinitis patient hurts constantly, if the stimulus accompanies it in everyday life. Develops over time persistent rhinitis. It is a chronic disease, symptoms of which are expressed not so sharply, but constantly.
Causes of ailments
The disease causes an allergic reaction rapid (immediate) type. This reaction is characterized by instant (from few seconds to minutes) manifestation of symptoms after contact with the irritant. The person suffering from Allergy to pollen of Lily, just go to the room where there is a bouquet of a few seconds appeared all the signs of a cold. This reaction can last long enough after contact with the allergen. Symptoms sometimes hurt the patient for the next 12 hours.
The disease can occur in the form of light. In this case, vital functions of the patient almost does not suffer. With an average form of the disease a person is unable to carry out normal, everyday work, he can't sleep. Whensevere allergic rhinitis symptoms are very strong, and the patient has to temporarily cease work. Allergic rhinitis along with atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma are the most common allergic diseases.
Causes of allergic rhinitis may be different. It all depends on the body. The most common irritants are mites in house dust, the very dust, various chemicals, cosmetics, pollen and seeds of plants, spores of fungi, bird feathers or animal dander. The same body can safely respond to animal dander, but not to carry disputes of mushrooms. Allergic rhinitis can cause certain food and drugs.
Seasonal diseases can provoke certain types of plants, their pollen or seeds, for example: pollen, ragweed, poplar fluff. Year-round rhinitis can torture if it causes the household pet or household dust. Often the disease is professional, if the patient is at work deals with chemical drugs. For example, it is the pharmacist or chemist. Such perennial rhinitis often becomes chronic.
Chronic allergic rhinitis often occurs in the elderly. With age the mucous membranes become dry, and supporting the nasal passages weakens cartilage. Such phenomena contribute to the development of the disease. At risk are people with weakened immune systems and genetic predisposition to allergies. Sometimes the development of the disease contribute not cured allergic reactions in early childhood. To cause exacerbation of the disease can cold air or strong odors.
The symptoms of allergic rhinitis
From this disease the following symptoms:
- Constant itching in nose and tickling arouses the desire to scratch your nose. Because of this, the nose becomes swollen and reddened.
- Severe itching in the nose provokes frequent sneezing. It is often prolonged seizures, when people can't stop sneezing.
- Transparent liquid "pouring" discharge from the nose. If the disease is added infection, the nasal discharge may become thick. Their color may change to yellow-green.
- Nasal congestion gives voice twang. The nose can be partially or completely incorporated. Often the nose is fully lays at night.
- The patient swollen eyelids and red eyes. They can tear. Sometimes there is puffiness of the face. A person has to breathe through the mouth.Because of this, he has dry lips.
- The patient may escalate the sensitivity to sharp smells, for example: spirits, tobacco smoke or gasoline. You may receive a change of taste.
- The usual remedies helped. When taking antihistamines, the patient feels a sharp relief.
- The disease may be accompanied by other allergic symptoms: rash, conjunctivitis or a cough.
Treatment of rhinitis with an allergic nature
Unfortunately, many people suffering from allergic rhinitis, the time does not go to the doctor. Mistaking allergic rhinitis is a manifestation of the cold, they abuse vasoconstrictor drugs for the treatment of rhinitis. Because of this "cure" the disease will only get worse. Congestion is harder to eliminate. Addicted to such drugs. Requires all large dose.
Immunoglobulins are compounds that are produced by cells of the immune system of the body. They perform a protective function. The IgE is responsible for allergic reactions. After contact with the allergen, it throws the body active substances that cause inflammation, swelling and other manifestations of the reaction.
Prolonged use of vasoconstrictor drugs, the patient may appear atrophic changes in the mucosa of the nasopharynx. This condition will seriously complicate the treatment of the disease. When you first suspected allergic nature of rhinitis should immediately visit the doctor. The doctor will prescribe a series of studies that will help to identify the irritant. Sometimes the patient himself has a clear idea of what specific substance causes it increased sensitivity. It can indicate the season or the conditions of exacerbation of the disease that will help to narrow it down.
To facilitate the patient's condition the doctor will prescribe antihistamines. They will take down the swelling and reduce the symptoms. For a long time to accept them, as they adversely affect the functioning of the heart and inhibit your thinking ability. Treatment antihistamines usually lasts about 2 weeks. If antihistamines do not give result, your doctor may prescribe antiallergic product for local use. The drug is sprayed through the dispenser directly on the mucous membrane of the nose. The therapeutic effect usually manifests after a few days.
In severe cases, when the disease is far advanced, the doctor prescribes corticosteroids.This hormones. To independently assign itself hormonal drugs is strictly prohibited. The decision about hormone therapy and its duration should only take a doctor. If allergic disease is joined by an infection, the doctor will prescribe drugs to treat it, depending on its nature.
In addition, the doctor may prescribe allergen-specific immunotherapy (hyposensitization). This method is based on the introduction into the organism of the patient increasing doses of the water-salt extract of the irritant. This therapy helps to reduce the body's sensitivity to the allergen. In the case of successful allergen-specific immunotherapy, the patient may get rid of allergic rhinitis forever. It will no longer respond to a stimulus and safely be able to communicate without threats to health. The success of treatment depends on the stage of the disease. The sooner the patient to see a doctor and begin treatment, the better the chances of successful recovery.
The tests that make at suspicion on allergic rhinitis
Skin tests help you quickly determine the substance-allergen. For this, the patient makes on the skin of the inner side of the forearm scratch, where is applied a drop of solution containing the allergen. Reaction would indicate sensitivity. This method of research is not carried out in the period of exacerbation of the disease, pregnant women and nursing mothers. A few days before skin tests patient cancel antihistamines to a distorted picture of the reaction. Allergising - analysis of specific immunoglobulin E blood.
The analysis allows to determine the reaction of the patient to a number of allergens simultaneously. Contraindications to study there. Therefore, the method used to diagnose diseases in children. Pregnant women and nursing mothers, and people with the disease in the acute stage, may undergo such an analysis. It can be done without lifting antihistamines.
The method allows to identify cross-reactivity to allergens. Cross-reaction is soreness not only to a specific product, but also to products with a similar composition to the allergens. For example, if a person is allergic to cod, a similar reaction will be tuna or salmon. The disadvantage of this analysis is the high frequency of false positive results (20%).
Prevention of allergic rhinitis
Excellent prevention of the disease is the lavage of the nasopharynx. This method helps to wash away not only the microbes, but the substances-allergens. Regular washing of the nasopharynx after exposure to the allergen will help to reduce or eliminate the symptoms.For washing, you can use the saline solution or spray (e.g., Throat).
You should avoid contact with the allergen. Seasonal rhinitis can be prevented, if not go to the nature and avoid places with lush vegetation. You can go on vacation for this period in a different region. If you have to work with chemicals that cause year-round rhinitis, you should think about changing jobs. Household allergens can be removed or mitigated by frequent wet cleaning and airing. From the premises it is better to remove objects that accumulate in themselves dust: carpets, heavy curtains, books and soft toys, potted plants.
Good to have in the living room with a humidifier or aquarium.
You should pay attention to the latest development - a drug that prevents the contact of the irritant of the mucosa of the nose. The drug is “Herbal”. The substance is based on plant cellulose with dispenser rastreskivaetsja on the mucous membrane of the nose, creating it a microscopic film. It is an effective prevention of allergic rhinitis.