Causes and treatment of atrophic rhinitis
Atrophic rhinitis is a disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the nasal cavities, accompanied by atrophy of the mucosa complete or partial nature.
Causes of atrophic rhinitis
Causes of atrophic rhinitis is often triggered by:
- pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract affecting the bile duct and liver;
- serious infectious diseases;
- poor social conditions;
- the lack of vitamins;
- violations of hormonal background;
- psychogenic stress;
- household injuries or surgical nature;
- prolonged use of a vasoconstrictor;
- angiomatous formations in the nose;
- decreased immunity;
- genetic degeneration;
- infectious agents penetrating the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs;
- adverse environmental conditions, presents a high content of vapour, dust air;
- iron deficiency;
- chronic rhinitis;
- certain endocrine diseases.
In medical practice it is accepted to allocate primary and secondary atrophic rhinitis. The first kind is also known as ozena, and is not characteristic of any predisposing factors.
If the disease occurs on the background of the damaging effects, in this case the secondary form is diagnosed rhinitis.
Specialists identify and subatrophic rhinitis, which is quite difficult to attribute the varieties of this disease. His appearance often provoked by impaired nutrition of the mucous nasal membrane. This leads to the formation of dry crusts and specific.
The symptoms of atrophic rhinitis
In atrophic rhinitis there are specific symptoms that distinguish this disease from other ailments.
Patients with atrophic rhinitis complain about the appearance of dryness in the nasal cavity. There is a discomfort in the mucosa and the feeling of her tightness.
In the next phase in the nasal cavity leads to the formation of dry crusts, presented by the particles of dry nasal mucosa. Tumors have a yellowish-grayish color. The separation of these crusts may be accompanied by short and mild nasal bleeding, which are significantly amplified and become more frequent in the process of further developmentdisease.
The process of atrophy in the nasal cavity, accompanied by foul-smelling odor from the nose, increased nasal passages and sinks of the patient.
The gradual spread of atrophy may affect the olfactory centers, thereby violating the sense of smell.
In children with the above symptoms is complemented by the decreased appetite, irritability, pale skin, breathing through the mouth. As a rule, in atrophic rhinitis patient is not worried about a strong runny nose or watery eyes.
Advanced form of atrophic rhinitis is characterized by various deformation of the outer bone of the nose.
Diagnosis of atrophic rhinitis
Diagnosis of atrophic rhinitis deals with a ENT doctor, which should be treated upon detection of the above symptoms. Specialist carefully examines the complaints of the patient, and makes inspection of the nasal cavity.
The diagnosis of atrophic rhinitis is based on the analysis of the extensive prevalence of pathological processes and the degree of destruction of the epithelium.
To determine the exact diagnosis in some cases may need additional studies presented by CT scans and x-rays. Through these investigations the specialist can differentiate rhinitis from sinusitis, the treatment of which requires much less effort.
Also, the doctor can determine the bone marrow system. Based on the results of all tests specialist prescribes for effective treatment.
The treatment of atrophic rhinitis
This disease requires timely diagnosis and treatment, as in the absence of the latter may develop chronic atrophic rhinitis.
When treatment is prescribed by many specialists prefer conservative methods, which include local treatments aimed at relief of the patient.
Therapeutic effect consists of periodic irrigation of the nasal cavity that are made for the removal of cortical lesions and moisten the mucous membranes. This procedure can be carried out by own efforts of the patient. For this the patient must regularly rinse the nose, using warmed isotonic solution. In the absence of this tool, it can be replaced no less effective buffered hypertonic solution, previously warmed up to 37 degrees.
In some cases, you may need to clean the nasal cavity. This procedure is performed in medical institutions usingspecial tools.
Atrophic rhinitis infectious nature also treated to regular washings. But in this case the preference is given to antimicrobial drug solutions. Using these procedures it is possible to get rid of accumulated purulent discharge.
This method of treatment is used in chronic form of the disease. In addition may be assigned to systemic antibiotic therapy.
But infectious and chronic atrophic rhinitis may be easier to influence local products, presented different solutions, oils, ointments containing vitamin a and B2.
Quite effective is combined treatment consisting of the use of mucolytics and vasoconstrictor. Infectious and chronic rhinitis suggest treatment of anemia with iron deficiency. To strengthen the General condition of the patient, he administered the appointment of biogenic stimulators.
Treatment of fetid atrophic rhinitis chronic nature pay more attention. This is due to the severity of pathological changes occurring. In the treatment of this form use regular nasal lavage with potassium permanganate, soda, dioxin and hydrogen peroxide. After the procedures of washing into the nasal cavity of the patient is administered swabs soaked in the therapeutic antibacterial ointments, anti-inflammatory and healing effect. Also integral to treatment of chronic atrophic rhinitis is antibacterial therapy.
Severe cases of atrophic rhinitis and need surgery, aimed at narrowing the nasal cavity.
Prevention of atrophic rhinitis
The development of atrophic rhinitis can be prevented by following some instructions.
It is essential to avoid close contact with the dust that has silica, cement or tobacco nature.
Should regularly carry out procedures for hardening of the body to avoid hypothermia and adhere to the terms of proper nutrition filled with vitamins and useful microelements. For zakalivanii body suitable air and sun baths, water treatments and regular exercise.
Indoors it is necessary to maintain a healthy microclimate and clean air. People working in dusty, unhealthy work conditions, must use personal protection equipment, including special masks.
Atrophic rhinitis very often develops on the background of other diseases. Therefore, allviral, fungal or bacterial disease should be timely treatment. It is extremely important to prevent colds.
Important role and enhance immunity. This can be done through nutrition and supplementation, stimulating the immune system.