Features of development of hypertrophic rhinitis
Hypertrophic rhinitis is a chronic disease of the mucous membrane of the sinuses, characterized by uncontrolled tissue growth. This pathological condition leads to the fact that the nasal mucosa is much thickened, which is shortness of breath. In severe cases, can also increase the volume of bone skeleton of the nose.
This option rhinitis is a quite rare pathology, but severe disease can significantly degrade the quality of human life. It should be noted that, as a rule, hypertrophic rhinitis is the last stage in the development of catarrhal rhinitis, which is characterized by chronically persistent inflammation of the nasal mucosa.
Causes and pathogenesis of hypertrophic rhinitis
Given the rarity of this disease, the etiology of this disease is still not established up to the end. Notably, hypertrophic rhinitis is most often diagnosed in men over the age of 45 and in women this disease is extremely rare. There are factors that can trigger abnormal tissue growth in the nose.
- A history of frequent infectious lesions of the mucous membrane of all departments of the upper respiratory tract.
- Work at the enterprises, where is possible frequent inhalation of chemical vapours.
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system, provoking disorder of microcirculation in the nasal mucosa.
- Inflammation of the adenoids.
- Exposure to ionizing radiation.
- Inhalation of hot and cold air.
- Acquired and congenital deformities of the nasal septum.
- Inhalation of air with high dust content.
- Frequent Allergy symptoms.
This is not all the reasons can develop chronic hypertrophic rhinitis. Regardless of the causes of rhinitis develops slowly, there are 3 main phases of development. During the 1st phase of development of hypertrophic rhinitis, there is a slight proliferation of the mucous membrane, and from time to time you may receive the swelling and redness in this area. In addition this phase of development of the pathology can manifest a moderate defeat ciliated epithelium, but the inferior turbinate retain their pliability to palpation and elasticity.
With the development of the 3rd phase of the disease, there has been increased proliferation of tissues, the diffuse infiltration and the phenomenon of vascular giperkeratoza. Considering that on individual sites the degree of hypertrophy can be expressed in different ways, the surface of the nasal inserts maybuy bumpy, smooth and polipeptidy.
The main symptoms of hypertrophic rhinitis
The main symptom is nasal congestion. Given that none of the eye drops can't fix the situation and fix the problem, people may suspect the presence of hypertrophic rhinitis. In some cases, eye drops in the early stages of development of rhinitis can bring a slight relief as it helped to reduce the swelling. However, you need to understand that no drops are unable to eliminate the existing overgrown tissue. Many of the symptoms may indicate the development of hypertrophic rhinitis.
In addition to the permanent congestion, significant symptom is the character of the secretions from the nose. Rhinitis with frequent purulent discharge with brown specks. With the development of diseases and disorders of the local blood supply, some patients begin to note an increase in the number of cases of headache. Further, there is a significant hearing loss, as well as changes in tone of voice. This form of rhinitis is characterized by gradually increasing symptoms, so many patients may not note significant changes in your condition or to adjust and not to feel the signs of the disease.
In the 2nd phase of hypertrophic rhinitis there is the appearance of metaplasia of ciliated epithelium and considerable growth of the glandular apparatus. When examined in this phase of the disease there is a lack of degeneration of muscular fibres of blood vessels. In addition, the 2nd phase of development of hypertrophic rhinitis may be a lymphocytic infiltration of the tissues of the mucosa with a significant thickening of the subepithelial layer. Given that in this phase there is significant hypertrophy of the tissues, they begin to compress the lymphatic channels and blood vessels, leading to edema of the peripheral tissues. Because of the impaired blood supply to tissues of the mucous membrane of the nose may acquire a pale and even bluish in color.
How is diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic rhinitis?
The appearance of the main symptoms of hypertrophic rhinitis is required to consult an otolaryngologist and surgeon. Usually visual inspection is enough to detect thickening of the nasal mucosa and existing deformations. To confirm the diagnosis of the sinus can be investigated by a special microendoscope. To identify features of flow pathology often conducted x-rays and a CT scan of the sinuses. In rare cases, doctors prescribe a biopsy of the deformed tissues to determine the cause of the disease.
Structural changes of the mucosamembranes of the nose can be corrected with the help of medicine. If the person does not have the ability or desire to immediately go to surgical methods resolve the problem, can be used some means of conservative medicine to alleviate existing symptoms. A particularly effective means of physical therapy effects in cases where structural changes are poorly expressed. The most common methods of conservative medicine that is used in hypertrophic rhinitis include:
- The UHF procedure;
- special massage of the nasal mucous membranes;
- special suspension for nasal passages;
- reception of antikongestanty;
- UV irradiation of the nasal passages.
In the presence of severe deformity of the nasal mucosa conservative methods of influence, as a rule, are ineffective.
In the vast majority of cases to rectify the situation can only surgery.
Features of surgical intervention is determined on an individual basis.If the deformation is characterized by medium severity, treatment can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, including:
- laser therapy
- ultrasonic disintegration;
- burning specific chemical compounds.
In severe cases of deformities require deeper surgery. In some cases, resection of the sinus, in which the partially removed tissue to ensure the normal passage of oxygen. If resection cannot be done, the doctor may prescribe surgery for a partial removal of the nasal mucosa. This operation is also known as turbinotomy.
The abnormal growth of bone tissue is osteochondroma at which the partial removal of the tissues of the bone edges of the shell nose. Surgical intervention is performed under local anesthesia. As a rule, any operative interference is only 20-30 minutes as at present using modern endoscopic equipment.