The symptoms and treatment of acute rhinitis
Rhinitis, acute (runny nose) is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the sinuses that causes the violation of their basic functions. Rhinitis can be a separate disease, and the result of any pathological processes in the body.
Causes of rhinitis
The basis of the mechanism of the occurrence of rhinitis is a violation of the General and local immunity, which leads to the activation of pathogenic microorganisms and increase their number. Most often this occurs during hypothermia, the presence of holders of an acute or chronic disease. In addition, common causes of rhinitis: injury, penetration of a foreign body in nasal sinus, surgery, as well as work in adverse conditions, the presence of irritating chemicals in the air getting into the nasal cavity of dust or wood shavings etc.
The first signs of rhinitis
Symptoms of acute rhinitis are similar to any other inflammatory process and have several stages. Redness of the mucous membranes is replaced by a purulent or clear discharge, edema.
The common cold usually affects all parts of the nose and manifests as difficulty breathing through the nose, nasal discharge worsens the General condition of the body.
The inflammatory process may spread to the mucous membranes of the maxillary sinus, it leads to headaches, pain in the nose and thickening of the walls of the sinuses seen on x-ray. Symptoms depend on the nature of its origin and stage. There are 3 stages of acute rhinitis.
- The initial stage lasts no more than a day and is manifested in the form of dryness and tickling in the nose. Along with this may appear the fever, headache and fever. During the inspection of the sinuses characterized by symptoms, like pronounced vascular pattern, redness and dryness. Mucous or purulent discharge are absent.
- At this stage of the disease the inflammatory process progresses, the nasal cavity, a large number of transparent liquid. Over time, increases work mucous glands and transudate becomes thicker. It contains ammonia and salt, which explains the irritation of the nose during a cold. The skin in the nose blush, appear itching and burning, which disappear with time, however, congestion becomes more pronounced. Rhinitis may be accompanied by conjunctivitis, noise and congestion in the ears.
- The third stage occurs within 4-5 days after the onset of illness. At this time, there are such symptoms as a thick purulent dischargeyellowish or greenish color. After about 7 days the amount of discharge starts to decrease swelling subsided, nasal breathing easier, improves the General condition of the body .
Duration of rhinitis depends on the immune system of the sick. On average, acute rhinitis lasts about 10 days. With a strong immune system and proper treatment of the common cold can end in 3-4 days. In people with reduced immunity, the disease can last up to a month and become chronic. The main complications of acute rhinitis are: pharyngitis, bronchitis, sinusitis, inflammation of the auditory canal, eczema in the nose.
Rhinitis in children is diagnosed more often and is more severe than in adults. This leads some features of organism of children of early age: the narrowness of the nasal passages, a weak immune system, inflamed adenoids, inability to blow his nose, etc. in children of preschool age, the inflammation can move into the middle ear, leading to the development of otitis media. Rhinitis in infants has pronounced symptoms: fever up to 40°C, seizures, refusal to supply. Nasal congestion interferes with the process of feeding: the child throws a nipple or a pacifier after a few SIPS to inhale. As a result, the baby is malnourished, he has reduced weight, a disturbed sleep. In this case, the runny nose is accompanied by symptoms of gastro-intestinal tract: vomiting, diarrhea, bloating.
If the inflammatory process in neonates and infants captures not only the nose and the nasopharynx, it is referred to as the rhinopharyngitis.
Diagnosis and treatment of rhinitis
Diagnosis is made easily after studying the symptoms and results of rhinoscopy. Remember that a runny nose can be observed with SARS and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. You must be able to distinguish normal runny nose from specific rhinitis in infectious diseases.
Treat this disease usually at home. At a high temperature and General weakness, the patient must comply with bed rest. In the early stages of the disease is recommended the use of sweatshops means, such as hot foot baths in conjunction with the imposition of mustard plasters on the calf muscles or feet. After the procedure is recommended to drink tea with raspberry and to take Paracetamol. Procedures performed in the first days of illness can reduce its duration to 2-3 days.
For local treatment in the first stage, used Interferon, IRS-19, Lysozyme. To relieve headaches takeAn Advil, tylenol or Panadol. In addition, treatment of acute rhinitis include antihistamines. These drugs have the greatest effect in the first stage of the disease, but they can be used later.
In the second stage of development bacterial infections prescribe drugs containing antibiotics. To relieve nasal congestion used vasoconstrictor drugs and physiotherapy: UHF, microwave therapy. At the last stage of acute rhinitis are appointed antibacterial and astringents: or Collargol Protargolum. The patient is recommended to take vitamins and undergo physiotherapy.
The use of any drops, aerosols and powders local action may not last more than 10 days. Prolonged use of such drugs leads to disruption of the pH balance in the nasal cavity, reduction of the functions of the mucous membranes. To remove discharge from the nose should be gently, effortlessly freeing up both nostrils in turn.
The prognosis of acute rhinitis almost always favorable, however you need to remember about the probability of transition of the inflammatory process in the maxillary sinus, in the throat or middle ear.
Patients whose work is connected with food, services and harmful chemical substances at the time of a cold get sick.
Treatment of rhinitis in young children has its own characteristics. It is first necessary to restore nasal breathing for the duration of the meal. Before each feeding with a special device (called an aspirator) to suck the mucus from baby's nose.
If there is irritation the skin in the area of the nose lubricated with vegetable oil and the crusts removed with a cotton swab. 10 minutes before the feeding was instilled into the nose Otrivin or Sanorin, 3-4 times a day - Protargol 20%. These drugs soften the mucous membrane of the nose, kill bacteria and reduce the amount of mucous secretions.
Specific and other types of rhinitis
Specific rhinitis bundled with some dangerous infectious diseases. The flu the common cold is often accompanied by bleeding from the nose and inflammation of the maxillary sinuses. Antibiotics for its treatment do not apply.
If diphtheritic rhinitis in the nasal sinuses arise thick gray film, making breathing difficult. The disease is usually accompanied by intoxication, lesions of the cardiac muscles and facial nerves. Patient hospitalityat and extra administered diphtheria serum.
Syphilitic or gonorrheal rhinitis occurs in newborns, it is transmitted from an infected mother during childbirth.
When the disease is characterized by a thick yellowishnasal discharge and fever. This rhinitis can be treated with nose drops and antibiotics.