Diagnosis and treatment of exudative pleurisy
Pleural effusion is a disease in which in the pleural cavity inflammatory processes occur. This form of pleurisy is also called the hydrothorax. Pleural effusion may lead to pus formation and the development of metastasis.
Causes and symptoms of pleurisy
There are many factors that may cause dry pleurisy, or hydrothorax. Among the most common reasons doctors distinguish heart failure, renal disease, liver cirrhosis, pneumonia, acute tracheitis. Cirrhosis of the liver often can cause the formation of right-sided exudative pleurisy. Sometimes cause the formation of hydrothorax can be a cancer, such as:
- Lung cancer.
- Breast cancer.
- Cancer of the stomach.
- Cancer of the intestine.
- Pancreatic cancer.
Fluid accumulation when hydrothorax occurs most often due to the formation of malignant metastases to the pleura or the lymph nodes.
Malignant tumors impairs the outflow of lymph. As a result, the liquid begins to gradually penetrate into the cavity. For exudative pleurisy common symptoms:
- Blueness of the skin.
- Swelling of the veins, especially on the neck.
- Heart palpitations.
- Severe shortness of breath.
- Dry cough.
In addition, the typical symptom is severe pain in the region of the affected lung and heaviness in the chest. The pain is worse depending on the severity of the disease. When unilateral pleurisy the patient to lay on the affected side. In this case, healthy easy will work better. If pleurisy of the left hand side, or a disease accompanied by inflammation of the lymph nodes, it is better to consult a doctor-oncologist. On examination, the patient the physician should pay special attention to the skin. When a large accumulation of fluid the outflow of blood from the cervical will significantly worsen.
Diagnosis of hydrothorax
For the diagnosis of neoplastic pleural effusion is best to consult an oncologist. Typically, pleural effusion is determined on the basis of the survey results:
- First of all, the doctors collect data on diseases that transferred the patient earlier.
- After that you should pay attention to patient's complaints.
- The following is the number of physiological examinations.
- The last step isinstrumental surveys. The x-ray should show what kind of pleurisy, the patient left or right. In addition, instrumental examinations help to identify the severity of the disease and to find metastases, if any. X-rays should be accompanied by chest CT scan.
The computer tomography gives the possibility to determine the reasons that contributed to the development of hydrothorax. In addition, this procedure detects changes in the body that may be caused by pleurisy. Sometimes it's rational to ultrasonography. After all the procedures the doctor will conduct diagnostic puncture in the pleural cavities. If the number of clusters is small, the physician should conduct a fluid inlet and its morphological study. If the amount of liquid is large and threatens the life of the patient, it is necessary to carry out the operation, which is called thoracentesis.
There are times that it is impossible to make a final diagnosis and find the cause of the disease. In such cases it is common to videothoracoscopy. This procedure is a specific diagnosis of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope. During videothoracoscopy, as a rule, the doctor takes samples of material from the tumour. This is done in order to clarify diagnosis and to carry out timely treatment.
The treatment of hydrothorax and prevention of illness
The method of treatment is selected taking into account the type of pleural effusion and severity of the disease. Treatment of exudative pleurisy, which is accompanied by tumor begins with removal of fluid from the pleural cavity. This operation is needed in order the patient disappeared shortness of breath, and chest pain began to subside.
After the necessary procedures and identify the diagnosis often resort to chemotherapy. If the patient is too sensitive, the body, it should be administered antitumor agent. Chemotherapy not only destroy the tumor, but also eliminates the pleurisy. In case the tumor patient is insensitive, conduct pleurotes. This operation can prevent the accumulation of harmful liquids. Pleurotus may be mechanical, physical or chemical.
If the patient has no tumor, treatment is reduced to therapeutic interventions. They are directed to the treatment of disease, which is called hydrothorax. If the root cause was heart failure, the patient is prescribed a diet in which decreases the amount of salt and water in the diet. In addition, it is necessary to normalize the work of the patient. Also prescribe special medications. Most often this drug with diuretic action. Still it is necessary to reduce the load on the left ventricle of the heart.
Ifthe development of hydrothorax associated with kidney disease, you need bed rest. In addition, you should stick to a diet in which the amount of salt in the diet decreases. As drugs prescribed drugs that help to reduce the loss of protein in the human body. If pleural effusion was caused by cirrhosis of the liver, should also reduce the amount of liquid and salt. The amount of protein in the diet of the patient should be increased. In some cases, doctors prescribe diuretic medications.
There are times when the accumulation of fluid causes compression of the lungs. Then the doctors resort to pleural puncture. This procedure is necessary for slow removal from the pleural cavity transudate. The release of the pleural cavity and improve breathing of the patient. After the puncture the patient performed x-ray examination. It is necessary, in order to identify possible complications. According to doctors, the best prevention of hydrothorax is a timely treatment of diseases. In addition, the physicians are advised to follow a diet and minimize salt consumption.