Signs and treatment of purulent pleurisy
Among the most complex of inflammatory diseases of the lungs may be noted purulent pleurisy, which is considered one of the pulmonary pleura and designated in medical practice as a complication of lobar pneumonia and postgrippoznyh. Pleurisy is considered one of the most common pathologies of the lungs.
Despite the different causes of its appearance, it is equally common as the male and female population. But the greatest dangers of this disease for children.
Pleurisy and its features
Epithelial membrane that covers the lungs is called pleura consists of two sheets: the parietal and parietal. They cover the inner lining of the lung. Inflammatory processes affecting the lung and parietal leaf of the pleura, causes the disease called pleurisy. One of the main symptoms of pleurisy is the so-called effusion - excess fluid in the pleural plane. This condition is the most common.
The main causes of pleurisy are:
- the defeat of the pleura caused by infection;
- allergic inflammatory reaction;
- the presence of autoimmune diseases;
- chest injuries;
- the effects of ionizing radiation;
- the activity of pancreatic enzymes;
- primary and severe forms of tumor of the pleura.
At risk to infections of the pleura include people with other kinds of pathologies like diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, alcoholism, pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, chronic diseases of the lungs. From specific diseases also depend on the symptoms of pleurisy. These manifestations have great diagnostic value, allowing to establish the cause of the disease and start appropriate treatment.
The main stages of pleurisy
In modern medicine there are several incremental types of pleurisy: dry (fibrinous), exudative (exudative), purulent and tuberculous. Dry pleurisy appears in the initial stage of the inflammatory lesions of the pleura and is characterized by the fact that not only affects the serous membrane, but the cough receptors, resulting in the cough reflex.
Pleural effusion is a condition where the inflammatory response progresses, increase the scale of the affected parts of the serous membrane. The main danger at this stage of the disease is that it may develop respiratory failure, which can lead to death of the patient.
Stagepurulent and tuberculous pleuritis are the most severe, characterized by General intoxication of the organism. If time does not begin treatment, the disease can endanger the life of the patient.
Distinguish pleurisy from other lung diseases are symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, chest pain, increased body temperature, displacement of the trachea. Diagnosis of pleurisy is public and does not pose any difficulties. The only condition before the diagnosis is necessary to determine the cause of the inflammatory process of the pleura and accumulation of fluid in its cavity.
To this end, a clinical and radiological examination of the patient made blood tests, examination of sputum and microbiological studies. Treatment of pleurisy has two main directions: stabilization of the patient with normalization of the respiratory function, as well as eliminating the cause of the disease. For this purpose the treatment is pharmacological and medical treatments.
The pathogenesis of purulent pleurisy
One of the severe stages of the inflammatory process in the lungs is an acute purulent pleurisy (empyema).
The reason for its development is the presence of pathogenic bacteria, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Most often this disease is caused by the presence of one pathogen, but there are cases where several pathogens.
In the onset of disease is a severe form of lobular pneumonia or destruction - staphylococcal destruction of the lungs. Also contribute to its appearance can perforate (tear) of the esophagus. Primary empyema is extremely rare. It can cause diseases such as osteomyelitis, otitis media, cellulitis of the umbilicus, suppurative appendicitis, pyelitis and peritonitis.
In this condition the accumulation of pus in the lung occurs in the free cavity of the pocket, after which there is scarring of the pleura. The nature of the occurrence of empyema is divided into primary and secondary, it is acute purulent pleurisy and chronic.
Signs of the disease
In patients with empyema is similar with classic pleurisy symptoms, characterized by sharp pain, heaviness, feeling of fullness, shortness of breath. Patients complain of severe, continuous cough, shortness of breath, fever, General malaise. This phase of pleurisy is characterized by strong sharp pain, which is in process of accumulation of purulent masses of falls.
A pronounced dry cough. But in the acute form occurs mucosasputum with pus content, which is one of the signs of complications of pneumonia or lung abscess. In most cases, attacks of painful cough disturb the patient at night. The increase in body temperature can reach 39-40°C with constant or intermittent duration. With the development of purulent intoxication may be a heart rate of 120-130 beats per minute. This is because due to the accumulated exudate (inflammatory effusion) the heart is shifted slightly to the side.
The delay in providing timely patient care can lead to a breakthrough pus in the pleural cavity. In addition pus may accumulate air, causing severe pain and shortness of breath. If you run the disease and do not take the full course of treatment, there may be scarring, adhesions may develop bronhoektaza. The disease thus becomes chronic with periodic exacerbations.
The treatment of the disease
The basis of treatment of acute purulent pleurisy is the need to cleanse the body from intoxication and stabilization of the affected organs. The primary is the elimination of the purulent focus with subsequent smoothing of the lung. When splicing of the pleural layers and the fusion of connective tissue of cavity of the lung recovery occurs. Treatment should take place in a timely manner, has not yet formed a synechia, fibrotic folds (dense fibrous tissue) of the pleura and the disease became chronic.
Local treatment of purulent pleurisy is the procedure for evacuating the purulent fluid in the pleural cavity and intramuscularly injected penicillin, and, if necessary, are carried out and blood transfusion. If the illness became severe, doctors assigned to surgical treatment.
Children with empyema prescribed General antibacterial therapy with accounting of sensitivity to infectious agents and antibiotics. To reduce the risk of allergic reactions, use of desensitizing funds, and in some cases blood transfusions and plasma. During illness children prescribed enhanced care and strengthening therapy. In the process of recovery to prescribe absorbable physiotherapy procedures and therapeutic exercises.
The most dangerous consequences in case of insufficient and untimely treatment of empyema in adults and children can become bronchopleural fistula, impaired local blood circulation, can experience kidney failure. When severe neglect of the disease can develop amyloidosis (a violation of protein metabolism), which are fatal in most cases.
Many patients seek traditional means of treatment of empyema, is notunderstanding all its complexity and seriousness than only exacerbate the disease. Natural remedies in the treatment of lung can be allowed as concomitant therapy in the form of compresses, decoctions and tinctures with components which strengthen the immune system, facilitate the painful condition, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial action.
People who care about their health, it is worth remembering that timely diagnosis, correct and timely treatment, a healthy lifestyle will not give the soil for development of this terrible disease.