How to identify pneumonia in a child?
Every parent sooner or later asks the question: how to identify pneumonia in a child? This disease manifests itself in children more often than other diseases. The intensive development of medicine over the last 50 years has been able to mitigate the impact and consequences of the disease.
Recovery occurs in almost all cases (subject to the timely treatment of parents to the doctors). Pneumonia in most cases is called infectious causes. The most common factor considered bactericidal viruses (pneumococci), which finds permanent refuge in the nasal cavities.
At the age of six, the disease is provoked by Haemophilus influenzae. School-age children exposed to chlamydia, Mycoplasma is a viral source such pathology. One of the key tasks of the lungs is the oxygen supply of the body. The message of oxygen in the body is due to vascular channels that perform the transport task. The task is due to the alveoli (small areas of light use). During normal operation, the alveoli don't break up together on the exhalation of air.
Pneumonia strikes in these areas, filling them with products of the inflammatory process. The result of this process is the malfunction of the entire lung, as a consequence of the body harmed by inflammatory fluids.
Children are the first to feel the success of medical developments in the fight against pneumonia. Recently the disease was considered a major enemy of health and even life of the patient. Today pneumonia as a disease with fatal outcome has nothing to worry about. However, positive treatment outcome is dependent on high-quality, rapid diagnosis, respectively, well-made therapy.
The factors causing pneumonia in children
A group of factors causing the disease, lead antibacterial viruses. Virus group SARS is not excluded (as a cause of pneumonia, and a means of transportation other viruses in the lung area). Individual cases of illness can be triggered by fungal viruses and intracellular microbes.
Is no exception intrauterine pneumonia. Viral micronutrients amaze amniotic fluid by the placenta at the time of fruiting or birth canal, exposed to inflammatory process. In the end the newly born baby to be ill with pneumonia.
Parents should be aware of how to recognize pneumonia with the aimearly detection of the disease.
The following factors characteristic of the group of kids who are most susceptible to this disease:
- the weight of the unborn child is quite small;
- during pregnancy, the mother had a viral, bacterial infection;
- anaemia iron deficiency;
- heart defect;
- the rickets;
- struck by the nervous system;
- long period of stay in the inpatient unit.
In the latter case, the probability of Contracting pneumonia is very high. The causative agent of the disease in this situation acts aggressive flora with a negative reaction to the antibiotic drugs.
Symptoms of pathology
An experienced practitioner is able to establish a correct diagnosis of the disease, to determine a successful course of treatment. In some cases, the diagnosis of pneumonia requires the results of x-ray studies. Do not be afraid to use a similar method of analysis, as the quality of the definition of disease will only increase, which may offset the negative impact of x-rays on the body of the baby.
Man, sick with pneumonia, worried about the following symptoms:
- appears cyanotic skin, lips;
- lack of appetite;
- retraction of the soft tissues of the child;
- a sense of concern, increased sleepiness;
- shortness of breath (age of 2.5 months - 60 times per minute, 2.5 months - 1 year or more 55 times, 1 to 3 years - more than 40 times);
- airway you;
- temperatures over 38º C for 2-3 days.
Extensive inflammatory process is expressed by shortness of breath, which can be drawn inside the soft intervals between the ribs. In the respiratory process involved nasal, cervical muscle groups. Children have a natural desire to sit or raise her arms and shoulders above.
This desire is explained by the fact that in such a position expands the rib cage, a little easier to breath. At the same time pale-blue tint of the lips, edges of the nose. The manifestation of the symptoms should seek immediate hospital treatment, because there is an increased risk of death because of disorders of the Central nervous system because of oxygen deficiency.
You must pay attention to behavioral changes of the baby. Appear lethargy, in rare cases, anxiety, moodiness, no appetite. Failures occur in the respiratory process: lost the rhythm, breathing predominantly superficial, which includes extra muscle group. Temperature of body increase, but in rare cases is quite high. The presence of cough is not typical. May cause diarrhea.
One-year-old, six-year-old children with the disease pneumonia change in behavior, appear shortness of breath, high fever, lost appetite, not thirsty. The pale blue hue of the nose and lips occurs in the last stage of the disease. The presence of cough is not always observed. Because of oxygen deficiency there is a high likelihood of diarrhea.
Using a stethoscope, even a qualified doctor is not always able to determine the presence of pathology. This is the insidious disease. Any diagnosis of pneumonia based on x-ray images of the lung.
Methods of treatment of the disease
The negative impact of pneumonia affects the heart and some vital organs. A serious complication may be the appearance in the lung of purulent cavities.
A severe form of the disease require hospital treatment, but many patients with lung pathology course cope with the disease at home. Often the doctor can't diagnose pneumonia during a house call. In such cases, the child with the parents goes to the children's clinic. When effective the hospital treatment of a child process is allowed to complete at home (subject to the necessary requirements for the maintenance of the patient). The superiority of the treatment in the home is native to the child's atmosphere, likely again to be infected with the virus in the hospital. At the hospital, many viral microorganisms that have developed a specific immunity to antibacterial agents.
The use of antibacterial drugs aimed at fighting pneumonia. A mild form of the disease to be treated is assigned to penicillin drugs included inside. Concomitant medication is a macrolide. Second, a number of medication has no need of appointment at the initial stages of therapy. The complex form of the disease requires prescription antibiotic injections. Using multiple injections, the doctor observes the patient's condition. In the case of improving health and reducing the temperature of at least the 38.2 º C without the use of the funds to reduce fever, antibiotics by intramuscular injection is terminated, is assigned to oral method of medication.
When the temperature of the baby returned to normal, the patient is recommended to sleep in the open air (within reasonable temperature limits). The older children can go out three weeks laterafter the disease, but only in case of effective result of therapy, in the absence of the key signs of pathology. If the treatment was without any complications, specific remedial classes are not assigned.