What is the focal pneumonia
Often diagnosed with such disease of the lower respiratory tract as pneumonia focal. Pneumonia is called an inflammatory disease that affects the lung tissue. This pathology often affects young children. There are different varieties of this disease. To become inflamed can a proportion of body segments or of the segment. Total often diagnosed pneumonia.
Very often found with bronchial pneumonia. Human lungs are paired organs. They are located in the thoracic cavity. Each lung is divided into lobes, segments and lobules. In focal form of pneumonia and there are minor infiltrates within the lobules of the organ. What is the etiology, clinic and treatment of this disease?
Features of the disease
For this form of pneumonia characterized by acute course with severe intoxication. This form of pneumonia occurs in 2 of 3 patients. Often initially affects the terminal bronchi, after which the process affects lung tissue. The disease has an infectious nature. The basis for the development of the disease are the same pathogenetic mechanisms that are inherent in lobar (croupous pneumonia).
In the development of inflammation distinguish 4 phases: tide, red obucheniya, gray obucheniya and resolution. The lesions can be large and small. Focus may be single or multiple foci are observed. In most cases, suffer lower segments of the body. Very rarely is the upper.
This is the difference of focal pneumonia from pulmonary tuberculosis. When tuberculous infection in most cases, inflammation of the upper body. The peculiarity of this form of the disease is the fact that the study of x-rays detected by the alternating dark and light areas. The dark areas correspond to atelectasis and bright emphysema. The affected part of the lung has a mottled appearance.
In most cases, the prognosis for this lung disease is favorable. In case of inadequate therapy or self-medication focal pneumonia can cause the formation of pulmonary abscess, gangrene. Sometimes the disease becomes chronic.
The development of focal pneumonia caused by various external and internal factors. The disease has an infectious nature. In children, focal pneumonia is most often cause of the following microorganisms: streptococci, pneumococci, microscopic fungi, viruses, E. coli.
Children immunity is imperfect. The activation of pathogenicmicroflora quickly causes swelling and dysfunction of the body. At first it may be bronchitis. In the background, it is the accumulation of phlegm, which is favorable for reproduction of microorganisms. In the absence of proper treatment develop pneumonia. In childhood most often revealed only inflammation greater than 1 cm.
In adults with bronchial pneumonia is often secondary, that is, it is formed in a complicated course of another disease. Predisposing factors are:
- adenoviral infection;
- rhinovirus infection;
- whooping cough;
- scarlet fever;
Rarely, the specific cause of pneumonia is a suppurative otitis, dysentery, purulent diseases of soft tissues and bones (osteomyelitis, furunculosis), meningitis. Separate congestion and aspiration pneumonia. Aspiration form is observed in the case of penetration into the lungs of different substances (toxic gases, food particles, vomit, small solid objects). Aspiration is possible with loss of consciousness during a severe vomiting and heavy intoxication.
As for the congestive pneumonia, it develops from seriously ill people, long time being in bed. Lack of exercise leads to stagnation of blood in the pulmonary circulation, which leads to the disruption of ventilation. Against this there is an accumulation of phlegm, which is the reason for the activation and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms. Often congestive pneumonia is diagnosed in the elderly.
This form of pneumonia can be formed on the background of the following diseases: cardiac malformations, coronary artery disease, asthma, diabetes, stroke, cranial trauma, broken bones, and spine. Equally important in the development of focal pneumonia have the following predisposing factors: Smoking, frequent colds, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, impaired immune system, vitamin deficiencies, poor nutrition, fluctuations of pressure and humidity.
Right-sided focal pneumonia or left-occurs with a variety of clinical manifestations.
The most frequent signs are:
- febrile fever;
- chest pain;
- excessive sweating;
- pain in the head;
- shortness of breath.
The severity of symptoms depends on the size of the lesions and their number. The fever usually lastsfrom 3 to 5 days. The cough may be dry or productive with expectoration of mucous sputum. When multiple foci and their merger may cause shortness of breath and cyanosis. In children often the disease starts with prodromal phenomena. These include agitation or lethargy, loss of appetite, increased heart rate, rapid breathing. In severe cases, possible vomiting.
Pneumonia can be suspected in the following objective signs: tachycardia, tachypnea, muffled tones of the heart, auscultation moist rales, pulmonary breathing hard.
In most cases, clinical symptoms are observed for 1.5-2 weeks, then the disease regresses. The possible complications of focal pneumonia include:
- abscess formation;
- gangrene of lung;
- inflammation of the pleura;
- the obstructive syndrome;
- acute respiratory failure;
- pulmonary hemorrhage;
- pyopneumothorax (accumulation of air and pus in the pleural cavity);
- acute blood poisoning (sepsis);
- purulent pericarditis;
Heart failure is often formed on the background of postoperative pneumonia. With the drain of pneumonia of viral etiology possible complications such as hemoptysis, various bleeding. Especially severe bilateral pneumonia. Treatment it should be in the hospital
You need to know not only the symptoms of focal pneumonia, and complex diagnostic procedures that will help to make an accurate diagnosis. Diagnosis of the disease includes:
- collection of anamnesis of life and disease history;
- external inspection;
- physical examination (percussion, auscultation);
- measurement of pressure and temperature of the body;
- conducting x-ray examination;
- CT or MRI of the lungs;
- the examination of the sputum;
- General and biochemical blood analysis;
- the analysis of urine.
In the blood revealed leukocytosis, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increased fibrinogen concentration and sialic acid, the presence of C-reactive protein. Often is organized a study of gas composition of the lungs and spirometry. When x-ray examination revealed small focal shadows. With pneumonia drain these pockets are larger, and they can be interleaved with microabscesses and areas of emphysema.
Treatment focal pneumonia should be comprehensive.
Treatment involves the use ofantibiotics (protected penicillins, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, macrolides), infusion therapy, mucolytics, expectorants, antihistamines, physiotherapy.
For children often use "Augmentin" and "Timentin". The treatment lasts 1-2 weeks. Antibiotics should be administered by injection. Mucolytics are prescribed in case of cough. Is impossible to hypothermia and smoke during treatment.
A good effect is produced by inhalation. In severe respiratory failure oxygen therapy is carried out. Of physiotherapy methods used UHF-therapy, electrophoresis. Treatments include chest compressions, breathing exercises. In congestive pneumonia patients, if possible, you need to move more. Thus, focal pneumonia is a serious disease that requires antibiotic treatment and medical supervision.