The reasons for the development and treatment of pneumonia in children
In children pneumonia is among the most serious diseases of the respiratory system. But parents should not assume the diagnosis sentence. If the disease is discovered in time, recovery will come pretty quickly and will not have any complications.
Causes childhood pneumonia
Pneumonia in children manifests itself not as adults. For this reason, require special approaches to healing. The causes of the disease differ between children who belong to different age groups, in patients who are debilitated, and those who remains hospitalized. The etiology of pneumonia today is that the dominant role it plays pathogenic Staphylococcus and hemolytic and viridans Streptococcus. The same can be attributed to the pneumococcus.
A greater percentage of such diseases earned by children at home or on the street, is the result of activation of endogenous bacterial flora of the nasopharynx. But there is the possibility of exogenous infection. Most often, the appearance of pneumonia in children provoked by the pneumococcus. Then patients sharply raises the temperature up to 38-39 degrees. There is a sleepy, little one is experiencing General malaise. If time and correctly to begin to treat the child, the total duration of the illness will not exceed ten days.
Pneumonia in children under one year often occurs on the background of other viral diseases, e.g. flu. The most dangerous for children are legionellae pneumonia. In this disease from three to four days is the incubation period. When he passes, begins active development of acute clinical symptoms. This may be respiratory insufficiency, focal or segmental inflammation. And these symptoms can lead to a tragic outcome.
The causes that predispose to active development of the disease:
- early age children;
- asphyxia during labor or birth injury;
- intrauterine hypoxia;
- prematurity of the child;
- pneumopathy newborn;
- vitamin deficiency;
- acquired or congenital heart diseases;
- cystic fibrosis, which is a special congenital disease that causes a serious breach in the workflow of the respiratory system;
- malformations of the lungs;
- lowered immunity;
- chronic bronchitis;
- the presence in the nasopharynx of chronic infections.
Signs of pneumonia in children
Pneumonia in a child can bedetected by certain symptoms:
- too heavy shortness of breath;
- refusal to eat;
- cyanosis of nasolabial triangle;
- causeless sweating.
On top of that children's pneumonia is able to be accompanied by heart palpitations, diarrhea, skin rash, jaundice, confusion, and muscle pain. If the baby has not yet turned one year, there is a possibility of seizures on the background of a very high temperature.
For pneumonia any of the characteristic cough is not there. There may be a very severe cough that is similar to pertussis. Sometimes it is superficial, very weak cough, but it may be missing altogether. If there is inflammation in the bronchi, and the lungs, there is a possibility of the appearance of the sputum. But most often it is not displayed. In that case, if in the respiratory process involves the pleura, with cough and breathing will experience pain in the chest.
When listening to the lungs of the child, the pediatrician will detect the presence of characteristic changes, which manifests itself in wheezing at the peak of inhalation or in wet variegated wheezing.
The risk of viral pneumonia
In 2008 - 2010, in connection with epidemics of swine and chicken flu, the doctors were able to see that viral damage to the lungs of the baby with the presence of reduced immunity very quickly lead to pulmonary edema and death. And the kid's body with a strong immune system is able to independently and successfully deal with the pathogen.
It turns out that in the pathogenesis of the disease is a huge role of General and local immunity, as well as the type of microorganism that causes pneumonia. In order to successfully cope with the treatment, you need to identify the first signs of the disease and to promptly contact their doctor.
Diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia
To diagnose the disease, using such methods of research:
- Carrying out a General analysis of blood. This method can show the presence in the child's body inflammation.
- The x-rays. X-rays of the chest allows to make the most accurate diagnosis of pneumonia. The affected area will be visible in the picture in the form of a blackout.
- A study of the composition of sputum. Thus, doctors can identify bacteria, leukocytes and other cells.
- The study of blood gas composition. Through this analysis, doctors can determine the extent to which the disturbed breathing process.
Classification of childhood pneumonia
The disease has a separate classification:
- Focal pneumonia.Often the lesions have a size of 1 cm or more.
- Focal confluent pneumonia. This type of disease occurs infiltrative changes in some segments or throughout the lung. Against the background of these changes can be noticeable the most dense of the sections of the cavity of destruction or infiltration.
- Segmental form of pneumonia. Here in the process gets involved the whole segment in a state of atelectasis, hypoventilation.
Often pneumonia can cause serious lung complications, broncho-obstructive syndrome and acute respiratory failure. Possible extrapulmonary complications.
Treatment of childhood pneumonia
The treatment of pneumonia in the baby, you must exercise only under the supervision of a doctor. Most often, children with severe or moderate form of the disease requires to be treated in hospitals.
Regardless of the severity of the disease hospitalization will be subject to children who are under three years. The younger children, the disease develops rapidly. And the condition may suddenly deteriorate. In this case, it may require assistance from medical personnel. The older children pneumonia treatment mild forms can take place at home. But only if parents are willing to implement all recommendations of the doctor.
The main medical tools, which are used in the treatment of childhood pneumonia are antibiotics.
If such a remedy is chosen correctly, 24 hours later, improve the patient's condition. If the patient is not getting better for 24-36 hours, you need to change the antibiotic to another. Treatment of childhood pneumonia with antibiotics often must continue from six to ten days. Pneumonia, which is caused by chlamydia or Mycoplasma, should be treated with special antiviral medication type.
Apart from antibiotics in the treatment of disease can be used drugs that restore drainage function of the lungs mucolytic agent and an immunostimulant. If the temperature of the baby is above 38.5 degrees, requires special antipyretics. In addition, depending on how serious the child's condition, are appointed by antihistamines, infusion and oxygen therapy, corticosteroids.
Since pneumonia is a very insidious disease, the state of the baby may deteriorate at any moment, so in any case can not risk the health of the child. In medical a today there are approximately 200 antibiotic drugs, which go on sale in more than 600 different brand names. In the process of choosing athe drug should be guided by not only its potential toxicity to children and the anticipated effectiveness, but also cost and ease of use in the treatment. Be healthy!