Causes and treatments of pneumonia in newborns
Pneumonia in newborns, the causes of which are characterized by intrauterine infection of the fetus or infection during birth – this is an acute inflammation of the lung tissue infectious origin, accompanied by the breathing process. According to statistics, the disease is diagnosed in 1% of full-term and 12-15% of premature infants. The successful recovery of the child and its sustainable development for pneumonia will depend on the timely detection of disease and the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment.
Causes of pneumonia in neonates
Today we know quite a lot of factors that can lead to the development of pneumonia in newborns. The main cause of this disease is the infection of the fetus harmful microorganisms: streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, and viruses and fungi.
Infection of the child by pathogenic bacteria can occur in two ways:
- bronchial – lungs;
- hematogenous – from mother to baby via blood.
In the first case, the disease penetrates into the body of a child during childbirth. In this case, the predisposing factors are the structural features of the lung in infants and underdevelopment of the respiratory center, which is commonly observed in preterm infants. There is also a large risk of congenital pneumonia in children if the expectant mother during pregnancy were exposed to infectious diseases, it during this period was internal bleeding, the newborn during childbirth was for a long time without water.
Much less frequently the infection occurs by hematogenous, as in this case, the pregnant woman will feel discomfort. This will allow it time to see a doctor and get effective treatment that will not only improve her condition, but also reduce the risk of fetal infection.
Symptoms of pneumonia in newborns
If infection of the fetus occurred before birth, the signs of inflammation of the lungs can be observed in the first minutes of a baby's life. This allows the experienced doctor as soon as possible to put the correct diagnosis and to appoint effective treatment. Such symptoms include:
- Asphyxia – violation of the respiratory function in the form of suffocation in which there is oxygen deficiency. To bring a newborn out from it veryoften resort to resuscitation events.
- The weak cries of the newborn. The birth of a healthy child is accompanied by his screams that start the breathing process. In pneumonia the shouts can be very weak or absent. While breathing in infants will be superficial and irregular.
- Increased or decreased body temperature. Intermittent body temperature in newborns is normal. But for pneumonia it can reach 39°C and above, and in premature infants the temperature may drop to 34°C. this state are a direct threat to the life of the baby, so they need to react instantly.
- Disruption of the functioning of the digestive system. The baby often spits up, he observed the periodic bouts of vomiting. It can also lead to a reduction in its weight.
- General malaise. In newborns it is manifested by apathy and lethargy. In severe form of pneumonia in infants may be strongly reduced innate reflexes (breathing, sucking, etc.).
- Change the color of the skin and mucous membranes. The color of the skin of the newborn can be judged on many diseases, including pneumonia. In this case, the skin first becomes gray and after a while, pale and cyanotic.
More difficult to determine pneumonia when the infection happened some time after birth (e.g., after discharge from the hospital). This is due to the fact that young parents by the inexperience may not see or do not pay enough attention to the first signs of the disease. The main symptom of pneumonia is shortness of breath.
The treatment of pneumonia in newborn
Congenital pneumonia in term infants almost always occurs without serious complications and no need of relieving the lungs by artificial ventilation. The duration of illness is about 10 days, after which the baby is on the mend. Pneumonia in premature infants in the best passes after a month course of antibiotics, but often the disease is fatal.
The treatment of pneumonia in infants has its own characteristics:
- Treatment must be carried out in stationary conditions. This is because in infants with pneumonia often have complications in the kidneys, heart and respiratory systems that require rapid response.
- The child should be with his mother in a separate room, which will limit his contact with other children.
- In the house it is necessary to constantly maintain the optimum temperature and humidity levels. In room should be 2 timesday (morning and evening) to do a wet cleaning and carry out airing.
- The diet should be full of breast milk. If the baby not able to suckle, he should feed expressed milk.
In the treatment of pneumonia in any age of the main place is occupied by the broad-spectrum antibiotics (Ceftriaxone, cefotaxim, Amoxiclav, cefepime, etc.). In addition to antibiotics are prescribed vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B15, C, immunoglobulins, daily hot packs, electrophoresis, microwave and other treatments.
The children who suffered pneumonia, prone to repeated pneumonia, so they need constant care. After recovery they should periodically conduct courses of vitamin therapy. To 1 year baby should be under medical supervision.