Consequences and treatment of intrauterine pneumonia in newborn
Intrauterine pneumonia in infants, the consequences of which can be severe, is a very frequent pathology. This is an infectious disease that develops in the first days of a child's life.
The cause of this kind of pneumonia is the child ingestion of infected amniotic fluid at birth or hematogenous penetration of the pathogen from sick mother.
Diagnosis of intrauterine pneumonia
The main diagnostic criteria of intrauterine pneumonia:
- Signs of pneumonia appear from 1 to 3 days of life.
- Upon delivery of the x-ray on the 3rd day of a child's life are revealed focal or infiltrative shadows.
- When planting flora in mother and child the first days of life are observed in identical tests.
- With a lethal outcome on newborn 4 day determined by the inflammatory process in the lungs.
Auxiliary diagnostic criteria:
- Histological examination of the placenta may reveal an inflammatory process even in the womb of his mother.
- When enlarged liver and spleen pathology is defined in the body of the baby.
- The blood tests revealed the presence of inflammation.
The symptoms of intrauterine pneumonia
The symptoms appear on the second or third day after birth. Already at birth it is noticeable that the child is listless, weak, the skin is cyanotic. May not have the reflexes of swallowing and sucking, muscular hypotonia.
Other symptoms include:
- dry skin, accompanied by hemorrhagic rash;
- extremities swollen;
- in full-term infants fever, preterm, on the contrary, reduced to 34-35 degrees;
- shortness of breath accompanied by shortness of breath;
- 2-3 days listening wheezing;
- regurgitation and vomiting;
- the lack of body weight;
- may develop heart failure;
- enlargement of the liver.
Most often, pneumonia can develop due to streptococcal infection in the womb.
With the development of respiratory failure there are three phases of formation:
- 1 degree – slightly rapid breathing, retraction of the intercostal spaces mild, mild cyanosis at rest.
- Stage 2 – when breathing involved supporting musculature, more pronounced cyanosis.
- Stage 3 – breathing frequent, arrhythmia, sleep apnea, head movement and extra muscles when breathing. Cyanosis stands as agitated and calmcondition.
The consequences of intrauterine pneumonia of the newborn and their treatment
Not always the treatment of congenital pneumonia may give a favorable result. Uncommon consequences even timely treatment. These include the formation of atelectasis, which is characterized by areas spavaca lung tissue and connective tissue formation on the affected areas of the lungs. In the future, with such pathologies lungs are not able to fully perform its functions, leading to emphysema. In this disease, the child develops toxemia, which is difficult to treat.
The main therapeutic measures pneumonia and its consequences:
- Elimination of the peripheral circulation and its blockade. This procedure is aimed to eliminate centralization of blood flow and reduce brain activity, which is also involved in this process.
- Detoxification of the body. Is this therapy to remove toxins accumulated in the body, correct water and electrolyte and acid-alkaline balance, nourish the internal organs a good blood supply.
- Elimination of heart failure.
- Prevention of disseminated vascular coagulation, and when it appears – quality treatment.
- The symptoms of pneumonia.
The effects of pneumonia in children with delayed diuresis.
Most often the effects of this disease are manifested through the difficulty of urination. Delayed diuresis treated with diuretic drugs, which must appoint a physician. Often requires the help of a catheter that is inserted into the bladder.
Forced diuresis is carried out in three directions, such as:
- The elimination of the dehydration.
- The establishment of water-salt metabolism.
- Avoiding the high content of fluid in the body.
The main treatment
If you suspect a child's pneumonia is isolated from the mother and transferred to the NICU. There he was placed in a couveuse, which ensures the flow of humidified oxygen. A small child is prescribed a course of antibiotics. When deterioration is used for artificial lung ventilation, this process is often performed in the intensive care unit, where transferred to the heavy baby. If treatment is not entirely correct, then pneumonia can turn into chronic stage.
The causes of intrauterine pneumonia
Most often agents of the disease are Streptococcus from group b viruses influenza and parainfluenza, adenovirus, Mycoplasma. Infection of the fetus can occur if a pregnant woman in the last stages of gestationflu or SARS.
Other causes of infection of the child include:
- chronic infection of the mother;
- the use of steroid use during pregnancy;
- hypoxia of the fetus in the womb of a woman;
- genetic diseases of the lungs and other internal organs.
The child may get an infection resulting in pneumonia, in two main ways:
- Bronchial, when the infection penetrates through the lungs.
- Hematogenous when intrauterine infection occurs through the infected mother's blood.
Another route of infection may be by the passage of the child through the birth canal and ingestion of infected amniotic fluid. There are cases of infection and after birth of the baby.
Prevention of pneumonia in newborns
Preventive measures of this disease include keeping the pregnant woman's body to prevent her infection with influenza or acute respiratory illness, especially in the second half of pregnancy.
Other preventive measures pregnant women should include the following:
- Timely account opening cards, regularly attending clinics and passing all the necessary tests.
- Nutrition expectant mother should be varied and balanced, rich in vitamins and minerals.
- Plays a considerable role in the rejection of bad habits and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
During delivery, doctors should take all measures to avoid asphyxia of the fetus. After the child was born not to spill the infection into the room where it is located. It is very important not to overcool your pet kid during this period. And also proven the importance of breast milk in raising the immune system of the child.