Causes and treatment the abscessed pneumonia
Abscessing pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs complicated by abscess and is caused by the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria that have penetrated into the bronchial tubes from the mouth. Lung abscess - cavity purulent or dry in nature, resulting from straightening of the lungs due to the resultant pus.
This process may be preceded by a serious chronic disease, and various blood diseases, diabetes, prolonged intake of certain medications. Abscessing pneumonia is divided into primary and secondary. In the first case pneumonia occurs aerobroken way, in the second - from other purulent foci. Most often this type of pneumonia occurs in the first few months of a child's life.
Initially, patients who contract this form of pneumonia, diagnosed as periodontal disease.
Improper treatment of periodontal disease breeding bacteria from crevices in the gums penetrate into the lower respiratory tract. If there is a weakening immunity, then the infection inside bronchi, formation of an inflammatory process, and then the death of lung tissue.
From the history of abscessing pneumonia
In the early 20th century the third part of patients had died. Assumption British doctor David Smith that the source of pulmonary infection may be in the oral cavity, was correct. He noted that when opening the thorax the lungs are found the same microorganisms in the gingival crevices.
This type of pneumonia was a threat to the production of antibiotics. As already noted, one third of the patients died, second third constantly suffered from relapses and only the last third of fully recovered.
When did you take tetracycline and penicillin has been the first improvement. As a result of prolonged use of these medications patients mild form of abscess forming pneumonia eventually felt better.
Causes of abscessed pneumonia
The main reason for this type of pneumonia acts the infection caused by anaerobic microorganisms, staphylococci or Klebsiella. In addition, abscessed pneumonia can occur due to contact infection, or penetration of foreign bodies into the respiratory tract.
The source of the formation of cavities with air when pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus, today to the end is not detected. In some cases their formation is associated with the flow Piccolino-necrotic process by which the air penetrates in the bronchi. Experts saythat is a reaction to a staphylococcal pathogen.
In newborns the causes of the formation of abscess forming pneumonia - trauma at birth, birth prematurely, incorrect prescription of antibiotics, asphyxia.
The main factor of getting harmful microorganisms in the tissue of the lungs is the infiltration of a large number of secretion from oropharynx when the body a variety of purulent lesions that have access to the lymphatic or the bloodstream. In this way most likely to infect people with alcohol or drug addiction, suffered a stroke, epilepsy and other disorders of consciousness.
The main symptoms of pneumonia abscessed
For acute abscessing pneumonia is divided into two types:
- Appears rapidly, with high temperature in the range of 38.5-40 degrees, respiratory distress, and the education of toxicity. Most often, the infection is by pneumococcus or Staphylococcus.
- The slow course of the disease, usually occurs due to respiratory viral infection. First diagnosed as a small disease of the bronchial tubes, and the purulent deposits are formed already after 2-3 weeks. After the formation of pus General condition worsens, increased body temperature, there are shortness of breath and cardiovascular distress, pallor. When listening to the lung area detected finely sobs, and in the region of the heart heart sounds can be muted. As a result of intestinal paresis is observed bloating.
When a medical examination revealed protrusion of the chest with the part where there was an infection. In addition, there is enlargement of the spleen and liver, urination occurs abruptly, the chair or liquid, or restricted, tachycardia occurs. Pursuing painful cough, pressure bouts. Vomiting may occur.
In addition, from the side of the chest is not visible respiratory movements or significant lag during breaths. In an x-ray you can see that all the organs are displaced in the direction of healthy lung.
From 4 to 7 day is the development of pleural complications, a blood test can detect mild anemia, increasing with increasing purulent inflammation. The urinalysis revealed a small kidney lesions in some cases, there is a pyelonephritis.
If abscessed pneumonia occurs against a background of mixed infection,the symptoms are similar to bacterial suppurative pneumonia, and the formation of cavities is due to tissue necrosis.
If it is suspected purulent pleurisy, to urgently take the puncture of the pleural cavity not only for diagnostic purposes but also for therapeutic.
The lymph system and its variants, which develop due to bronchial fistula, serve as indication for drainage of the pleural cavity.
Abscessing pneumonia: treatment
Purulent pneumonia rather difficult treatment should be applied as therapeutic drugs, and surgical methods for the elimination of purulent lesions.
Primarily the treatment is aimed at eliminating toxic lesion of the body, the restoration of the proper level of vitamins, salts, proteins and minerals, the elimination of oxygen starvation of all organs, increasing immunity.
The doctor often assigns two types of antibiotics, depending on the harmful organisms, struck a light, and their compatibility among themselves. A course of antibiotics may be 7-10 days or 12-14 then replace them with other species. On average, the antibiotics may take 1-1,5 months, and in some cases more. Sometimes the treatment is delayed for 4 months.
To increase the immunity of the patient and to replenish his power, prescribe vitamin complexes, which include vitamins E, B1, and A. in Addition, the patient receives daily intravenous injection of special drugs that improve blood flow in the lungs and dilates the bronchi.
The patient is prescribed a soft diet, which includes:
- elevated to the head position of the bed;
- the use of drugs against flatulence;
- frequent washing of the nose;
- nutrition should be a fraction (of children breastfed, it is best to feed fresh expressed milk);
- remove accumulated mucus;
- in the presence of toxicity is carried out regression therapy by setting the catheter, followed by injections of drugs.
For elimination of the purulent foci apply therapeutic bronchoscopy, appointed by expectorants, bronchodilators and inhalation with a special medication. In severe cases, use of drainage and puncture of the lung with active drainage of purulent content. After the treatment most patients fully recover, the rest formed a chronic abscess of the affected lung or fibrosis, and in severe cases may be fatal. Further, the incidence and fatal outcomes are most often associated with occurrence of variouscomplications.
Poor prognosis is diagnosed in adults, more precisely, the elderly and people with comorbidities, for example, anemia, lesions with Staphylococcus aureus. Complications often include septic shock, sepsis, meningitis, myocarditis, brain abscess, pericarditis, empyema of the pleura. Such severe complications are due to late referral to a health facility, an incorrect assignment of treatment for the wrong diagnosis.