Causes and treatment of aspiration pneumonia
Aspiration pneumonia is an inflammatory process developing in the lungs due to exposure to foreign substances from the stomach and throat, caught in the respiratory tract. As a result, the lung tissues of the reproduction and distribution of harmful microorganisms.
Aspiration pneumonia - a very common disease.
Causes of aspiration pneumonia
The penetration (aspiration) of tiny food particles in the region of the respiratory tract occur frequently. Due to the body's defense mechanisms of the foreign body does not fall directly into the lungs and rapidly cleared out. If a normal protective reaction is broken, there may be penetration of particles into the lung area, which is the prerequisite for the development of aspiration pneumonia.
In the category of persons most affected by the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia, are the people whose immunity is weakened by abuse of alcohol or drugs.
However, this type of pneumonia can attack perfectly healthy people. Food particles can get into the lung area during, for example, vomiting.
There are a number of factors that create favorable ground for the development of aspiration pneumonia:
- Central nervous system disease in the form of stroke, tumors, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis;
- diseases causing disorders of swallowing processes;
- the presence of the mouth and upper respiratory tract pathogenic microflora;
- damage top of the respiratory tract, causes which are mechanical and iatrogenic manipulation.
Depending on why education is accepted to distinguish three types of aspiration pneumonia:
- Pneumonia resulting from mechanical disorders of the structure of the respiratory tract foreign bodies of small and medium calibers, penetrating into the area of the bronchi.
- Bacterial pneumonia (the result of exposure to a variety of pathogens that penetrate into the lung area).
- Pneumonitis chemical nature (a consequence of aspiration into the lungs of gastric juice or other toxic substances).
The symptoms of aspiration pneumonia
Common symptoms indicating inflammation of the bronchial tree may be represented by:
- the increase in body temperature;
- rapid heart rhythms;
- difficulty breaths, shortness of breath;
- pain in the chestthe cell, which become more intense during coughing;
- a bluish colour of the skin of the face of the patient.
As aspiration pneumonia is developing for various reasons, it may manifest in different ways.
For bacterial aspiration pneumonia is characterized by the following signs:
- a significant increase in temperature, which in frequent cases may reach the level of 38° C;
- the occurrence of productive cough accompanied by purulent sputum deviations;
- pain in the chest.
In aspiration pneumonia, which was caused by contact with chemical substances, the patient has General intoxication of the body and the following symptoms:
- high body temperature;
- rapid heart rate:
- shortness of breath;
- the secretion of sputum with a pink tinge;
- signs cyanosis of the skin due to inadequate supply the skin with oxygen.
Aspiration pneumonia, the prerequisites for the development of which is the ingress of a foreign body in the region of the bronchial tree may be accompanied by the emergence of painful reflex of coughing, after which the process of inflammation begins to destroy the lung epithelium.
Aspiration pneumonia in newborns may develop on the basis of fetal infection, immaturity of lung tissues and birth trauma.
In the womb the process of infecting the child in the process of zaglatyvanii them of amniotic fluid or mucus in the birth canal.
A newborn with aspiration pneumonia marked respiratory insufficiency and the appearance of pale-gray skin tone.
The process of feeding is accompanied by constant vomiting and regurgitation. There is a sharp weight loss then a slow set.
Diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia
About the presence of aspiration pneumonia evidenced by the presence of the aspiration episode that can be confirmed using physical, radiographic, endoscopic and microbiological studies.
At the reception, the doctor carefully examines the symptoms on the presence of dyspnea, cyanosis and tachycardia.
With the help of x-ray examination of the lungs professional to determine the presence of infiltrates and typical localization of foci of disease.
For an accurate diagnosis may also need a study of bacterial culture of sputum and wash water from the bronchi. For this purpose, bronchoscopy, aimed at the fence phlegm, taking the wash water.Sputum tests also be conducted in order to find out which antibiotic to use to treat the disease.
In order to determine the severity of hypoxemia, may require the study of blood gas composition.
Aspiration pneumonia in children under 2 years are pretty hard to diagnose. This is because the period of acute symptoms followed by times of calm, in which the disease hard to detect even by the results of x-ray studies.
Often the existence of a foreign component in the respiratory tract of the child specialist may guess only after multiple cases of severe pneumonia.
Treatment of aspiration pneumonia
The treatment of the disease involves the simultaneous use of several antimicrobial drugs, which must be taken for 2 weeks.
If in the lungs abscesses, experts are turning to the drainage, as well as vibration and percussion massage of the chest. In some cases it may be necessary to conduct repeated tracheal aspiration of secretions and sanation bronchoscopy.
The need for surgical intervention occurs only in severe cases, which are characterized by large abscesses and pulmonary hemorrhage.
Treatment of aspiration pneumonia performed in medical facilities under close medical supervision.
When small amounts aspirated substances, early diagnosis and treatment of the disease can be removed effortlessly.
Prevention of aspiration pneumonia
Persons belonging to the category of risk, have increased the care in the consistency of food intake and their health status in a timely manner correcting concomitant diseases and the basic pathological condition. This applies to persons who are elderly and suffering sustained alcohol dependence, neuromuscular disorders, diseases of the Central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
For patients prone to aspiration processes, recommended eating in granulated form and diet with lenient terms and conditions.