Causes, symptoms and treatment of atypical pneumonia
Atypical pneumonia is pneumonia caused by uncharacteristic of this disease pathogens. In fact, SARS is not called a separate disease with its etiology, symptomatology and clinic, and several diseases caused by various pathogenic organisms, and they affect to varying degrees the lower respiratory tract.
The types of atypical pneumonia
Since the pathogens of atypical pneumonia a few, the symptoms and treatment in each case also differ. Classification of diseases is also determined by the disease organisms. Pneumonia may be:
- virus etc.
The causes of the disease - the pathogen, which can live on objects and in the air for 6 hours. This greatly increases the risk of outbreaks in areas where the inevitable overcrowding or close contact between people. This is primarily kindergartens and schools, as well as large work groups. Dangerous places: public transportation and various social facilities.
The most vulnerable to this disease children, with age range from newborns to high school students. Much less atypical pneumonia diagnosed in adults, but closer to old age also comes the threat of disease. The exception is severe acute respiratory syndrome (abbreviation of the English - SARS) caused by coronavirus (this kind of atypical pneumonia mainly affects adults from 25 to 70 years, cases in children are extremely rare), and Legionella pneumonia.
Atypical pneumonia in children develops as the human body enters and then infects a specific pathogenic microorganism. This disease can occur on the background of already existing diseases, most often cold, but can be an independent disease, in this case it is called primary atypical pneumonia.
All known medicine SARS is transmitted by airborne droplets and airborne dust ways.
Compounding the picture is the fact that, according to medical observation with SARS latent, i.e. hidden, the incubation period is from 3 to 10 days. By the time when signs of disease become apparent, a carrier of the infection manages to infect many direct contacts with him.
Signs of the disease
src="/respiratory/images/261-2.jpg" title="General analysis of blood for disease diagnosis" alt="a General analysis of blood for disease diagnosis">the Characteristic feature of atypical pneumonia is almost asymptomatic in the early days of the incubation period. But at the end of the latent period, infected people begin to show the first signs of the disease, and the younger the age of onset, the faster the symptoms appear and the more intense the infection develops. But this is a General provision, which does not exclude some features of the disease in its various phases in different patients. In each case, doctors who need to diagnose the disease are faced not only with a specific causative agent of pneumonia but also with the individual characteristics of each sick person.
To indicate that a person ill with atypical pneumonia, can a variety of signs. In Mycoplasma pneumonia (most often it is Mycoplasma becomes the causative agent of SARS) observed the following clinical picture:
- low-grade fever, accompanied by chills and General weakness;
- runny nose;
- sensation of dryness in the throat which happens at the beginning of colds;
- characteristic of inflammation of the lungs shortness of breath.
Mycoplasma atypical pneumonia, often bilateral. Occurs mostly favorably, in advanced cases, there may be a strong toxicity that affects the joints, myocardium, kidneys and liver.
Chlamydial pneumonia is accompanied by symptoms such as:
- sore throat and osiplosti;
- a bad cold;
- redness of the mucous throat;
- persistent non-productive cough;
- low-grade fever, turning into a high (up to 39 °C) and lasting for a long time;
- pulmonary shortness of breath.
Chlamydial pneumonia has a tendency to prolonged course, but is transferred easily. The main complications of chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Legionelleza the causative agent of pneumonia - Legionella - lives in the usual air conditioners that are installed in residential and other buildings, so basically get it to those in his home or work space air-conditioned air. Very rare cases of children.
The characteristics legionelleza SARS:
- the rapid increase in temperature to 39 °C or more;
- the lack of appetite, feeling of weakness, weakness;
- upset stomach (diarrhea);
- pain when swallowing;
- pain in sternum;
- cough and runny nose (at later stagesof the disease).
In the case regionalnogo pneumonia cough expectorated sputum mixed with blood. In the absence of treatment legionellae pneumonia may develop renal and respiratory failure, which in turn can lead to a lethal outcome.
When severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) observed:
- a sharp rise in temperature above 38 °C, chills, fever patient's;
- reduction of blood pressure, pulse weak filling;
- severe sweating;
- pain in the muscles;
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
- non-productive cough typical of pulmonary and shortness of breath (at later stages).
Patients with SARS observed cyanosis of the skin and mucous membranes (cyanosis). Common to all atypical pneumonia symptoms are: increased volume of the chest, respiration irregular, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), a very small amount of sputum and paroxysmal dry cough. In the blood leukocytosis unexpressed.
SARS is dangerous because the health of the sick person is deceptive and it is quite a long time, being already ill, is not experiencing significant ailments, his condition is much better than the usual illness with pneumonia at the same time. Often, this fallacy leads to the fact that patients (mainly adults) choose not to see a doctor, take anti-cough and anti-inflammatory drugs and are trying to move atypical pneumonia on my feet. This leads to the fact that these patients can reach hospitals already in serious condition (especially severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS, when some patients started disease you have to connect to the ventilator).
Diagnosis of atypical pneumonia
Atypical pneumonia can be diagnosed only by a qualified technician only in a medical facility. In order to differentiate atypical pneumonia from the ordinary pneumonia, the doctor, after a visual inspection and survey of the patient appoints clinical and laboratory examinations and diagnostic procedures, immunological and microbiological examination (laboratory analysis of sputum and blood) and x-ray. We need to mention that to date there is no specialized microbiological tests to identify the causative agent of SARS.
With regard to radiographs for all types of atypical pneumonia typical dim manifestations on x-ray. In Mycoplasma pneumonia, you can see the blurred light region,when chlamydial x-ray images show a small focal pneumonia. When legionelleza for the x-ray pattern characteristic of unilateral shadows that long to disappear. When SARS observed tissue infiltrates at the periphery of the lungs.
The treatment of the disease
The specialist may choose to prescribe treatment of atypical pneumonia only after the examination and correct diagnosis. Treatment will be aimed at the inhibition of the activity of specific identified pathogen. Generic antibiotic for treating SARS does not exist. For each case selected in the appropriate antibiotic drug (in addition to viral pneumonia, as antibiotics, by their nature, viruses cannot fight).
Among the drugs used for medical treatment of atypical pneumonia, we must mention the tetracycline, doxycycline, levofloxacin, erythromycin and clarithromycin. All of these tools, as well as a diagram of their admission and the duration of the course prescribed only by a doctor. Self-treatment can lead to complications and recurrence of the disease with the transition to a stable form.
Use in the treatment of SARS so-called traditional medicine makes experts skeptical reaction, but the use of traditional in any catarrhal disease funds will not be hurt, first and foremost is to drink plenty of liquids.
Prevention at the moment is basically in order to set the regions with an unfavourable epidemiological situation. In such places it is better not to travel unless necessary, and being there to use disposable masks. Transport, coming from such regions, should receive disinfection.