Peculiarities of course and treatment of interstitial pneumonia
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia refers to a special kind of pneumonia affecting the morphological changes of the lungs with no apparent etiology. Pneumonia called pneumonia, can occur in various forms and be manifested mixed symptoms. To identify interstitial pneumonia need to produce high-quality multilateral diagnostics.
Characteristics of the disease
Specific type of lung disease, interstitial pneumonia is a group of diffuse diseases of the pulmonary system, characterized by no apparent reason.
Sphere of manifestation, anatomical connective tissue of the interstitium, which under the influence of pathogens begins to thicken, breathing becomes rapid and difficult for a person experience shortness of breath, dry cough, sometimes a high temperature. The signs of the disease may vary. The concept of interstitial pneumonia, which is also called interstitial, includes such types of lung disease, such as:
- IPF - idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Characterized by the formation in the lungs so-called "honeycombs", the process of scarring of the interstitium. Often seen in people after 50 years. The disease can develop over several years, which complicates its detection and treatment.
- NSIP - nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Can occur in older people. Is accompanied by weight loss, lethargy, shortness of breath, increasing cough small.
- Acute interstitial pneumonia develops very rapidly and can lead to a sharp deterioration of the patient. Demands the immediate connection of devices to ensure viability of the lungs. Body temperature rises, deteriorating quality of life, there is a very severe shortness of breath and chills.
- Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Characterized by an inflammatory process in the lungs in absence of infection. The bronchioles are involved with interstitium, the diagnosis in the lungs is observed the formation of paripoorna granules.
- Desquamative interstitial pneumonia characteristic of the male sex, especially for male smokers. The first thing to do in this case is to stop Smoking and make the appropriate preparations. The disease is amenable to complete cure.
- Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia is more common in ladies in their forties. Can grow in a period of one to several years. Symptoms: shortness of breath, persistent cough, joint pain, breast andback.
And that's not the whole list of possible diseases group interstitial pneumonia.
Interstitial pneumonia in children is often manifested, especially in infants. The reason can be early acute respiratory viral infection, bronchitis, the mother or the penetration of viruses, infections Mycoplasma. Children are very hard to tolerate this disease because of severe dyspnea, high temperature and weakness.
Parents may not know that a common cough may be bronchitis, but also interstitial pneumonia, so the usual drugs for treatment of bronchitis do not apply. If there is the slightest suspicion of pneumonia of any type should immediately call an ambulance and make an admission. In stationary conditions mandatory prescribed oxygen therapy to maintain lung function. You need to apply antibiotics and symptomatic treatment.
Symptoms and causes
The symptoms of interstitial lung disease:
- shortness of breath (deep and hard)
- dry cough, sometimes with small sputum, often with pus;
- reducing weight;
- may increase the temperature of the body.
For different types of the disease symptoms are characterized by periodicity: symptoms can occur in one day, evolve quickly and dramatically worsen the condition, or they can last for years. Causes of lung diseases:
- infection Mycoplasma;
- viral or fungal pathogens;
- Pneumocystis (parasites);
There are cases when the cause of the disease is simply impossible to identify. Also important causes of disease may be a constant inhalation of chemical substances: dust, talc, asbestos. The disease can also occur under the influence of antibiotics, such as allergic pneumonia or in the process of taking drugs.
Diagnosis of the disease
To diagnose lung disease can pulmonologist. Usually people come only when unbearably annoying cough and shortness of breath. To identify the type of pneumonia, the doctor prescribes the following diagnosis:
- Computed tomography for detail on the structure of the lungs. Will be immediately visible to the degree of lung injury, the amount of change in the lower divisions, the presence of shadows or "frosted glass", the transformation of the structure in the cell. The doctor in the direction should state that a CT scan should be done in high resolution so you can see the position ofinterstitium.
- X-rays of the thoracic. The General condition of the respiratory system.
- Lung tests (body plethysmography, spirometry) to detect the quality of breathing.
- Lung biopsy. A sample of the material taken from the lungs in several ways: bronchoscopy with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or open biopsy (thoracotomy).
The treatment of the disease
The pulmonologist individually selects the treatment regimen of the disease.
This influences the type of pneumonia, causes, and the patient's condition. The doctor may hospitalize or prescribe treatment at home. Almost all types of lung diseases are treated with antibiotics. Only viral pneumonia involves the intake of antivirals. Can also apply heat treatments, electrophoresis, inhalations, physiotherapy. Mandatory adoption of medications to maintain immunity. Some pneumonia can not be cured completely.
If there is no improvement, and only fixing a stable condition, a person should always be under the supervision of a specialist.