Causes, symptoms and treatment of nosocomial pneumonia
Nosocomial pneumonia is the inflammation that develops in the respiratory system of the body. The disease can appear in hospital on the second or third day. Patients acquire this disease due to pathogenic bacteria that inhabit the walls of a medical facility and have already developed resistance to various drugs.
Features and classification of disease
Nosocomial pneumonia is one of the most common lung diseases. In addition, this disease often leads to death. The danger of the disease lies in the fact that so weakened the patient in terms of hospital treatment is becoming a severe form of pneumonia.
According to the current classification of the disease we can distinguish several forms of pneumonia:
- Community-acquired is acquired before reaching the medical facility.
- Nosocomial - acquired conditions in inpatient treatment.
- Aspiration - occurs as a consequence of liquid or solid food into the lungs.
- A form of pneumonia acquired as a result of serious immunity disorders.
Pneumonia is called nosocomial hospital (or the hospital). This disease is classified according to the severity of the development. Divided into mild, moderate and severe pneumonia. This files most often mild and average forms of pneumonia are United in one group as the treatment course they have almost the same.
Severe disease is quite striking symptoms and complex clinical picture. The disease develops very rapidly, accompanied by intoxication, septic shock, and marked impairment of respiratory function. If this form of the disease does not immediately conduct intensive therapy, the patient will die.
Pneumonia nosocomial nature has its bright symptomatic picture. The main symptom is the appearance on x-ray infiltrative lesions 2-3 days after patient admission to the hospital bed. But the exception to this is the fact that the patient could bring the infection could not be detected, as in the stage of incubation development.
Definition nosocomial pneumonia is the features of its development. This kind of illness is developing rapidly, appears fairly quickly and it is resistant to many drugs.
Why is there disease?
Nosocomial pneumonia appears in a certain category of hospitalized patients. Mainfactor that provokes the development of disease, is defenseless before the immune system is quite strong and dangerous infectious microorganisms. At risk are elderly and pediatric patients who either have lost most of the protective functions, or have not yet acquired.
The main causes of in-hospital pneumonia, specialists divided into categories:
- Mechanical - any infection in the lung and respiratory tract due to injury, a hardware intervention (breathing tubes, catheters, probes).
- Aspiration - infection of secretions of the nasopharynx as a result of entering into the respiratory part of the body of liquid or solid food.
- The spread of infections is not from the foci of the chest.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia develops in patients, which are mainly located in the departments of traumatology and surgery. Pneumonia of this nature can be ill patients with craniocerebral injuries, serious disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In surgical and intensive care units and in intensive care units of a hospital pneumonia can occur in patients with injuries to the pulmonary system, people connected to the instrument, artificially supporting the function of the respiratory system.
Any form of nosocomial pneumonia is based on infection control. Depending on the time of the development of the disease can have different infectious factors that trigger its occurrence. Early nosocomial pneumonia appears on the second or the fifth day after admission of the patient to the hospital.
Pathogens such forms are multi-drug resistant bacteria with antibiotic resistance from a group of piperacillin, ceftazidime and cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.
Such agents in most cases have a sensitivity to quite common and affordable antibiotics. Therefore, the forecast on the overall course of treatment and recovery of the patient is favorable.
The late appearance of nosocomial pneumonia starts to develop on the sixth day of hospital stay. Despite the fact that this form of disease usually caused by infectious infected by the mutated virus, the overall prognosis is quite favorable, as there are a number of efficient drugs, which in the microorganisms has high sensitivity.
A later form of hospital pneumonia are severe and it is not as optimistic forecasts of experts, since in most cases they occur because of highly resistant pathogenic microorganisms, havingsensitivity to the many effective antimicrobial drugs.
The most dangerous micro-organism experts believe Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is the cause of purulent ailments developing in the lungs and other organs. This bacterium is the most resistant to many of the modern antibacterial agents. She is able to quickly develop, leading to severe intoxication of the organism and death.
What is the disease?
Hospital pneumonia is expressed symptoms which do not differ much from the manifestations of other ailments of the pulmonary system. These symptoms can often be "erased" and not have striking manifestations, which greatly complicates early diagnosis of the disease. The most obvious signs of hospital pneumonia can be considered:
- The increase in temperature.
- The occurrence of shortness of breath.
- Increase in blood the number of leukocytes.
- The appearance of sputum.
- Severe fatigue and General malaise.
- The appearance on x-ray infiltrative lesions.
Each form of disease has specific characteristics, which may manifest itself in uncharacteristic pain. If the cause of the infection has caused several types of microorganisms at once, then the total clinical picture can evolve. In the early stages there may be signs of breathing difficult, increased pressure. Then develops General intoxication of the organism, the subsequent phase causes oxygen starvation of brain cells and death.
How to eliminate illness?
Diagnosis of hospital, or the hospital, pneumonia is quite often hampered by weak or varied symptoms. The most reliable detection methods of the disease are radiology and computed tomography of the respiratory system. Once the diagnosis is correctly established, the specialist assigns a number of studies and analyses to determine the causative agent.
The treatment of such pneumonia is often complicated by the insensitivity of the causative agent that triggered the disease.
General treatment consists of the gradual use of drugs and their choice in accordance with the characteristics of the patient, as the doctor really can not say and to determine which antibiotics will be a good influence on the pathogen. In addition, the treatment hampered the diagnosis. The results of the analysis on sensitivity to drugs can be obtained only after a fewweeks.
When microbiological testing has not yielded positive results, but the causative agent remained unknown, as well as its sensitivity to drugs, an expert assigns a strong antibiotic with a wide spectrum of effects.
In addition, the main task of the physician to promote the patient's immune system to have his defenses activated and able to fight infection. So General advice specialists are to establish for a patient the right conditions for a quick recovery.
The patient is recommended proper food, fresh air, massage and special exercises, if the human condition allows it.