Treatment of Pneumocystis
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a disease that occurs in people with weak immune systems. The causative agent of this disease is a yeast-like fungus. These bacteria can be present in the lungs of a healthy person, however in people with strong immune systems harmful bacteria can cause inflammation. The main causes of Pneumocystis is HIV infection, malignant tumor or a weak immune system.
The causes and mechanism of development of the disease
Pathogens Pneumocystis widespread in the environment. The results of recent studies of physicians have proved that Pneumocystis can be transmitted by airborne droplets.
Sometimes the disease can be transmitted from a sick mother to child. If the baby in the womb was influenced by disease-causing bacteria, he may be dead. The development of Pneumocystis often occurs in the following groups of people:
- in people with cancer;
- patients who suffer from diabetes;
- smokers and drug addicts;
- in individuals who are repeatedly exposed to chemotherapy or harmful radiation;
- people with blood diseases or connective tissues;
- individuals who work with hazardous chemicals.
A risk of infection Pneumocystis inflammation is preterm infants. Disease begins its development after 2-3 weeks after contact with carrier. The incubation period of PCP in people with HIV infection is greatly reduced.
Harmful microorganisms enter the body through the bronchial tree to the alveoli. After that, the germs begin to multiply rapidly and cause inflammation. Pneumocystis pneumonia may be accompanied by pulmonary insufficiency. In addition, the disease causes destruction of the integrity of membranes in the capillaries. After the defeat of the alveolar tissues, the pathogen enters the bloodstream.
Symptoms and diagnosis Pneumocystis
Depending on the immune status of patients and Pneumocystis pneumonia may have different symptoms.
Among the characteristic symptoms in children are the following:
- dry, conclusionmany cough;
- difficulty breathing, in advanced stages, you may experience choking;
- gray sputum.
In adultsin the early stages of the disease there is severe pain in the chest. They are accompanied by high fever and severe cough. In people with HIV infection, Pneumocystis pneumonia develops gradually. In the first stages at the patient the temperature rises and decreases body weight. A few months later there is a dry cough and impaired respiratory system. The next stage bacteria begin to adversely affect the liver, heart or kidney.
Diagnosis of PCP is somewhat difficult because of vague symptoms. Usually, the doctor pushed away from the history. In addition, atypical symptoms of the disease and shortness of breath can indicate the presence of Pneumocystis. Effective diagnosis is magnetic resonance imaging and a blood test. Not do without parasitological analysis of sputum. Only after that the doctor can identify the pathogen sputum.
Prevention and treatment of pneumocystosis
For effective treatment of this disease the physician should prescribe special medications. Most often used and Bactrim Biseptol. These drugs can prevent the growth of bacteria.
In people with HIV infection, treatment of pneumocystosis should be accompanied by antiretroviral and pathogenetic therapy. Pathogenic treatment is aimed to eliminate cardiac or pulmonary failure. Sometimes HIV-positive doctors prescribe various hormones. It is better to take short courses. When the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia treatment should be symptomatic. It involves taking antipyretics and bronchodilators.
Depending on the severity of disease and degree of immune deficiency treatments will vary. Pneumocystis pneumonia may be recurrent even after there was complete recovery. Therefore, you should follow some preventive measures. Prophylaxis in people with HIV infections can be primary and secondary. Primary used for children whose mother suffered from AIDS or other infections of the immune system. In some cases, prevention should be accompanied by chemotherapy. People suffering from AIDS, chemical prophylaxis is life. If the patient have any of HIV infection after a bone marrow transplant, chemotherapy is carried out within 1-1,5 years.