What is lobar pneumonia?
Lung disease entails a lot of unpleasant consequences. Among those ailments listed equity and pneumonia. The pathology is an acute infectious-allergic disease that involves one or more lobes of the lung and pleura.
This disease is characterized by symptoms, like headache, fever, chills, pleural pain, weakness, shortness of breath and other unpleasant symptoms. Based on data from x-ray, auscultation, clinical blood test, a diagnosis of the patient. In pneumonia pulmonary lobes need time to start antibiotic treatment, to carry out detoxification and symptomatic therapy, physical therapy.
Mainly cause disease causes include various strains of pneumococcus. In other cases, it may contain other microorganisms, penetrating into hematogenous lung, bronchial, lymphatic method.
The appearance of pneumonia the pulmonary lobes is relevant to the persistence of pneumococcus in the nasopharynx of a healthy patient, as well as to the sensitivity of the organism to its antigens.
The exacerbation of the disease can occur in a healthy person, and the secondary penetration of pneumococci in the respiratory tract.
Lobar pneumonia often develops as a result of hypothermia, the transfer of acute respiratory viral diseases, influenza, reducing local and General immunity, stress, trauma, intense exercise.
Often provoking the disease factors of getting diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, ischemic heart disease, chronic alcoholism, cancer, and other conditions. Genetic predisposition quite often plays a role in the manifestation of disease in humans.
Pathogenetic picture of pneumonia of the equity is divided into four types of mechanisms that predispose to the occurrence of inflammation of the lung lobes:
- Aspiration of oropharyngeal contents. This is the most frequent way of infecting the respiratory parts of the lungs, and therefore the main pathogenetic mechanism of development of pneumonia.
- Hematogenous spread of the stimulus from the center of extrapulmonary infection.
- Inhalation of microbial aerosols.
- Direct spread of the stimulus from neighboring damaged organs or as a result of infection occurs when injury to the chest.
Pulmonarypneumonia may differ in size of the lung lesions. Because define these types:
- Segmental (only affected part of the lung).
- Equity (damaged one share).
- Total (whole lung is inflamed).
- Bilateral (both lungs are damaged).
Distinguish another kind of pathologies of the lung – community acquired pneumonia. The disease occurs outside health care institutions and has its own forms which differ in their symptoms, a number of reasons, mechanism of the treatment.
Symptoms and diagnosis
Right-sided pneumonia of the lower lobe appears more often than inflammation left. This phenomenon can be explained by different structure of the Airways of the right side.
Inflammation of the lower lobe of the right side is slanted, which gives the opportunity to accumulate there are viruses and bacteria.
As during permanent or temporary deterioration of the immune system and oppression of the local protective functions of pathogenic microorganisms multiply in the bronchi, symptoms of bronchopneumonia. They are characterized by the presence of a large number of small places tissues.
When inflammation appear such signs:
- The increase in temperature.
- Shortness of breath, cough, pain pulmonary.
Pathology children develop fast enough. For several days without proper treatment, infiltration, which was found on radiographs, goes to lobular or segmental lesion.
This phenomenon is due to the fact that children's bodies have never been exposed to the virus or bacteria that triggered the disease. Since the child has no antibodies to the irritant, the immune system does not resist.
Following symptoms can help determine the presence of disease:
- Increased frequency of breathing.
- High temperature.
- Runny nose.
Feature of pneumonia is the fact that the pathology of the upper lobe were detected more frequently in children than in adults.
Diagnosis of inflammation in the lung lobe is performed on the basis of patient complaints, medical history and results of other studies. Compulsory chest x-ray, which will show all changes and violations.
Treatment and prevention
Timely and proper identification of signs helps make the appropriate treatment.
Pulmonary pneumonia in aggravated form as a treatment includes bed rest, constant drinking of warm fluids anda proper balanced diet.
Therapy for diseases will be applied according to the indications: therapeutic bronchoscopy, mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy. If the patient had toxic shock, then a stabilization of blood pressure, correction of microcirculatory disorders and metabolic acidosis.
If the intake of antibiotics does not help, then this suggests increased sensitivity of irritant drugs. It is important to know that, in addition to the use of antibiotics to eliminate inflammation in the lungs is also used activation of the protective factors of the organism. The goal of treatment is to help the body in fighting infection in the affected lobe, and not the destruction of the fabric of the medicinal components.
When the doctor does not notice a normal reaction to antibiotics, he may increase the dosage or even change the tool.
Further there is a "competition" for the most effective drug. However, this method is unacceptable conduct in the child's treatment, as it provokes a change of the internal organs.
When the patient is diagnosed with a chronic form of inflammation, antibiotics can be longer and more intense. As a rule, the duration of antibiotics will be determined by the character of the course of the disease and the degree of its severity, the accuracy and timeliness of the treatment, the pace of normalization of the patient's condition, results of radiography. The duration of treatment usually lasts 7-10 days, and in some cases even takes two to three weeks.
In lobar pneumonia as a Supplement used anti-inflammatory therapy, used antipyretics, antihistamines, Immunostimulants.
The treatment plan will include physiotherapy: UHF, electrophoresis of medicinal, chest massage, inhalations and physiotherapy.
In the case of the inflammatory process at more than one lobe for people suffering from alcoholism, patients with occur in parallel with disease requires a longer treatment process.
Depending on the likelihood of developing complications (children under 5 years, people in old age, patients with severe ongoing disease, lowered immune system, bacteria, etc.) will determine the prognosis of pulmonary pneumonia.
With timely treatment to the lung and if the patient is younger, the outcome is often favourable.
Preventive measures include procedures for training, regular exercise (moderate), prevention of hypothermia and the effects of stress. Patient importantbe isolated from healthy people, which, in turn, it is important to apply a gauze bandage. It is necessary to conduct chemical and physical disinfection methods. Be sure to timely cure all diseases of the respiratory system (rhinitis, sinusitis). To prevent all bad habits, particularly Smoking, should be minimized or even eliminated.