Modern classification of pneumonias
Acute disease respiratory lungs, characterized by inflammatory character, it is pneumonia, classification of the pathology in this case may vary according to the severity, location, and other factors. Because everyone needs to know what types of pathology can overtake the person in the wrong lifestyle.
The root causes of the disease
The Airways in people of any age are often exposed to dangerous pathogens. However, local protection functions (immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme microtag) in healthy people prevent disease.
The development of pneumonia can occur for the following reasons:
- His advanced age. People over 60 years old are often exposed to respiratory disease as the result of the depression of reflex, which is responsible for the contraction of the glottis.
- The neonatal period and infancy. As a rule, the disease develops because of defective immunity.
- Loss of consciousness in epilepsy, drugs, sleep, alcohol intoxication, suicide attempts, drug or hypnotic drugs.
- Diseases of the respiratory system, Smoking.
- Ongoing diseases that reduce the activity of protective functions (HIV infection, cancer, etc.).
- Poor diet, not enough good living conditions.
- The long stay of the person in the supine position.
The primary acute form of disease is an independent inflammatory process that mostly occurs due to an infection. The secondary form of the disease appear as complications from other illnesses (e.g. diseases of the cardiovascular system with improper blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, metabolic disorders and other problems). Pneumonia tends to develop because of chronic respiratory diseases.
Distribution of the acute form of the disease to focal and lobar probably only about pneumococcal pneumonia.
The course of illness, during which for 4 weeks no improvements, is considered to be prolonged.
What are the main types?
Modern medicine is developing with incredible speed: scientists are constantly finding new microorganisms, examine the antibiotics. This applies to the classifications of the disease, as they undergo many changes in order to facilitate the treatment of patients and prevention of the emergence of different kinds of complications.
Modern classification of pneumonias defines some types of the disease in children and adults. The basis for this separation servethe location of disease, etiology of the pathogen, the duration and terms of development of clinical categories of patients.
Classification according to forms and time of appearance
There are the following types of diseases:
- Community-acquired. It begins during the stay of the patient at home or in the first two days in the hospital. For relatively positive, the mortality rate does not exceed 12%.
- Nosocomially (hospital). Develops after two days of patient's stay in hospital or if he for the last three months had been in therapy in any medical institution for two or more days. In the current documents of the who (world health organization) there is a group of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, inflammation of the lungs, which are under the supervision of nursing homes. Are distinguished by higher complications and mortality up to 40%.
- Aspiration. This kind of pathology appears during the ingestion of a large amount of the contents of the oropharynx patients who lost consciousness, improper swallowing, and weak cough reflex. During aspiration of gastric contents is the likelihood of a chemical burn of the mucosa of the respiratory tract hydrochloric acid. This phenomenon is called chemical pneumonitis.
Classification by pathogens, severity and location
- Virus. They almost always triggered by influenza viruses, rhinoviruses, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus. Less common instigators of the disease are viruses of measles, pertussis, Epstein-Barr, rubella.
- Fungal. Cause pneumonia can fungi of all kinds.
- The disease, which develops due to worms.
- Combined. This conclusion is often installed during bacterial-viral associations.
- Very heavy.
- Focal. In the area of lobules and acini.
- Polysegmental, segmental. In the area of one or several segments.
- Equity. Once it was diagnosed lobar pneumonia. Located in the region of one lobe.
- Subtotal, total. Often, covers the whole lung.
Depending on the inflammatory process:
Classification of pneumonia in children
Distinguish the following periods:
- From infancy to 3 years. Instigators of the inflammatory process in the lungs (oftenpremature babies) are the streptococci of group b, cytomegalovirus infection and other germs.
- From 3 weeks to 3 months. Almost always children are viral infections (e.g., influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza).
- From 4 months to 4 years. This age implies a higher sensitivity of children to the Streptococcus group A, viral infections.
- From 5 to 15 years. This school age often involves the emergence of such streptococci as Chlamydiapneumoniae, Streptococcuspneumoniae, etc.
Nosocomial pneumonia also has varieties:
- The initial form. It develops during the first 4-5 days of receipt of a patient in a hospital.
- Late. This stage develops after 6 days stay in hospital, the diagnosis is mostly inaccurate or negative. Provocateurs, usually multiresistant to antibiotics.
How is it treated?
The process of treatment of pneumonia more simple forms may be used under the supervision of doctors generalist: the family doctor, internist, pediatrician and General practitioners. Complicated the position of the patient involves hospitalization, better if it's specialized hospital.
The basis of therapy of pneumonia is the appointment of antibacterial agents.
The course, norms, means are selected exclusively by the attending physician depending on the total picture of the disease and the presence of other ailment.
Mostly as treatment will require a combination of two different antibiotics.
If there is a cough, the doctor prescribes thinning and expectorant drugs. Among the most effective marked ACC, just to rest.
If the patient noted the unproductive or dry cough or no, the above drugs are not available as a treatment.
Preventive measures at the time of Contracting pneumonia following:
- It is important to comply with bed rest during illness. In the recovery process - polupostelny.
- Eliminate the habit of Smoking.
- Drink plenty of fluid a day (2 to 3 l per day).
- The diet should include all the necessary nutrients, particularly vitamins a, b, C, carbohydrates and proteins.
In addition, we need to do breathing exercises (before starting the exercises, you should consult your doctor, as this lesson is contraindicated in certain diseases of the heart and lung abscess).