The symptoms and treatment of pneumonia during pregnancy
Pneumonia during pregnancy most often develops when cold or as a consequence of SARS. On the occurrence of colds, many people try not to pay attention or to be treated with traditional methods. Expectant mothers should be more responsible to treat any ailments and symptoms of colds. You should consult a doctor at early stages of disease development. Pneumonia and pregnancy pose a threat to women's health and for the baby.
Signs and causes of disease
Clinical picture (symptoms) are the same for all patients. The disease first like a cold. Typical are cough, shortness of breath, fever, chest pain, weakness, fatigue, sweating. With the development of pneumonia the temperature increases to 39-40° C, increased pain in the thoracic, cough dry, barking or sputum. Depending on the causative agent of pneumonia symptoms may differ slightly. Bacterial pneumonia has pronounced characteristics. Have atypical - the disease begins gradually, the symptoms are mild. For pneumonia caused by a virus characterized by body aches, severe pain in muscles and joints.
Weakened immunity affects the upper respiratory tract, pulmonary tissue, the mucous membrane of the lungs. There are complications of colds, such as laryngitis, bronchitis, tracheitis. Next, you may develop acute pneumonia.
It is a secondary infectious disease of the lungs, and it can cause Staphylococcus, Candida fungi, respiratory viruses. A major factor in the development of pneumonia is the pneumococcus, which is part of conditionally pathogenic microflora of man.
In medical terminology pneumonia divided into four groups:
- on the background of immunodeficiency States.
In obstetric practice pneumonia in pregnant women refers mostly to the first group.
Characteristics and types of the disease
For diseases in pregnant women can be complicated by physiological changes in the period of carrying a child. The shape of the thorax, changing the location of the aperture, a raised enlarged uterus. Reduced respiratory surface of the lungs, increasing the load on the cardiovascular system, and as a consequence deteriorating the flow of oxygen in the pulmonary system. Supply fetus with oxygen depends on the level of oxygenation of the mother's blood. Often respiratoryfailure occurs when respiratory diseases, leading to hypoxia of the fetus.
Complications associated with pneumonia, pregnancy in the first trimester (12 weeks) the most dangerous. During this period, the microorganisms may have adverse effects on the fetus, cause changes in its development or cause the infection of the placenta with the development of placental insufficiency and intrauterine infection of the fetus.
Sometimes recommend termination of pregnancy after a course of antibacterial and detoxication therapy.
Pneumonia in pregnant women is more common in the second and third trimesters, when all organ systems of the fetus are already formed. Treatment of disease the threat of pregnancy is not responsible, but can cause premature birth. With the development of pneumonia shortly before the alleged date of birth, the doctors are trying to postpone the labor and reduce the risk of infection of the fetus. The presence of the disease at the time of labour make it impossible for breastfeeding a child that has a negative impact on its development.
Indications for hospitalization of pregnant women:
- severe disease;
- the current complication of the pregnancy itself;
- accompanying somatic diseases.
In the first half of pregnancy (before 22 weeks) sick hospitalitynet to therapy (or pulmonology). In the second half of the period treated in the obstetric Department under the supervision of a physician.
Diagnosis of the disease
In the appointment of treatment should pay attention to chronic lung disease, frequent respiratory diseases, the presence of foci of infection in the nasopharynx, anemia.
Laboratory blood tests (white blood cell count, ROE, creatine, urea), microbiological examination of sputum (paint in Grams), taken in the morning after the expectoration into a sterile container. In implicit clinical picture of the disease is prescribed fluoroscopy of the chest in two projections, which allows to identify focal infiltration of lung tissue. This method of research is used in extreme cases, the fruit must be covered by special lead screen. To the instrumental examination includes the method of fibrobronchoscopy, which is diagnosed with tuberculosis, the development of intrauterine pathology and infection. Additionally appointed computed tomography and ultrasound of the lung to clarify the localization and structure of pulmonary lesions.
The treatment of the disease
Antibacterial treatment is prescribed after the doctor's clinical diagnosis. The antibiotic is selected inbased on a minimum negative impact on the fetus. The amount, type of admission and the group of the drug depend on the nature of infection and comorbidities. In bacterial pneumonia with typical clinical picture of the recommended antibiotics penicillin (such as amoxicillin). In pneumonia caused by atypical microorganisms, using modern and safe products, namely the macrolides (azithromycin). In complicated course of the disease with additional risk factors applying protected aminopenicillins or cephalosporins of 3 generations. When necessary factors doctor may prescribe expectorants and mucolytic drugs, detoxication therapy, anti-histamine substances.
After receiving all data of the appointment specify and correct. When pneumonia is treated over a month with persistence of symptoms, it is considered a prolonged course of the disease.
There is the probability of a complicated course of pneumonia. Complications include pulmonary edema, cardiopulmonary failure, sepsis, infectious-toxic shock, pleural effusion. Prevention is carried out with the appointment of antibacterial therapy, taking into account the sensitivity of microflora to antibiotics. Along with treatment of the underlying disease, a therapy of complications of pregnancy and prevention of fetoplacental insufficiency with Actovegin and Riboxin. The fetoplacental complex is a functional system mother-placenta-fetus.
The evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment based on the results of laboratory tests of blood, x-rays, tests for the serum level of hormones of fetoplacental complex.
The most effective means of preventing any disease, including pneumonia, is the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle of a pregnant woman. Proper and balanced diet should include plenty of fruits, vegetables, herbs, dairy products, protein and complex carbohydrates. Fresh air is good and the mother and the baby.
You should pay attention to the climate situation in the house. It is well known that dry and polluted air in the room changes the properties of mucus of the upper respiratory tract.
It becomes thick and does not perform its basic functions: violates ventilation of the lungs, impairs blood flow in stagnant zones accumulate microorganisms, inflammation begins. It is important to conduct regular wet cleaning, and the room temperature should be about 20° C.
Great prevention of pneumonia - respiratory gymnastics whichhelps to nourish and oxygenate tissue of the lungs and eliminates shortness of breath and tachycardia.
Also breathing exercises have a relaxing and calming effect.
Most importantly, we must give up bad habits such as Smoking and alcohol. First of all, it hurts the baby and is an additional risk for emergence of the disease in the expectant mother.