The symptoms and treatment viral pneumonia
Pneumonia viral (aka pneumonia) is a very dangerous and very common disease, which is accompanied by inflammatory lesions of the lower respiratory tract. From the name of the disease implies that the causative agents are viruses. Viral pneumonia can affect both adults and children. What is this disease, how it is diagnosed and treated? Let's try to answer these questions.
Pneumonia: definition and causes
Such categories of the population like children, pregnant women, the elderly, persons living with HIV (AIDS) or suffering from diseases that cause a permanent weakening of the immune system are at high risk. This is because the organisms of these people are less protected and therefore more susceptible to the virus. However, this does not mean that the rest of the populations is not threatened. Pneumonia is a dangerous disease for everyone. Therefore, when the nagging symptoms of colds or flu, especially if the patient's condition deteriorates, it is necessary to address to the doctor-the therapist, and sometimes right to go to the hospital or call the ambulance, since complications as pneumonia can be very dangerous and can be life threatening to humans.
In most cases the disease is within 21-24 days (the so-called mild). However, frequent and severe forms of the disease, which can lead to death.
There are different viruses that cause this disease:
- influenza viruses A and b;
- respiratory syncytial virus;
- parainfluenza virus;
- herpes-virus (CMV);
- the measles virus etc.
As a result of infection in the lungs are inflamed. It blocks the flow of oxygen, which leads to symptoms and consequences.
The above viruses can be transmitted from one person to another, for example, during patient coughing or sneezing and touching surfaces that could be contaminated by a sick person. It is therefore important to observe basic hygiene measures during epidemics, or when your loved ones or colleagues get sick. For example, basic handwashing with soap and water, officially recognized by science one of the main ways to avoid infection.
The symptoms of the disease
For this dangerous disease is characterized by the following symptoms which occur not only in adults but also in children:
- unproductive, long time passing cough;
- General weakness,fatigue, lethargy.
The symptoms of this disease can develop gradually and be not pronounced in the beginning of the disease, but over time they grow. Access to a doctor-the therapist (and, if necessary, to the doctor-pulmonologist) in the presence of the above symptoms must!
On examination, the patient the doctor by auscultation (listening to the patient, watch for the following signs:
- shortness of breath;
- cyanosis (cyanosis of nasolabial triangle);
- rash, etc.
Influenza and cytomegalovirus pneumonia
Flu viruses can often provoke the disease. The incubation period can vary from several hours (particularly in children) to 3 days. First, not all of the symptoms of this disease can manifest at the same time, however, characterized by the following: severe cough, sore throat, headaches, General weakness.
Symptoms usually intensify over time, appear shortness of breath, cyanosis.
In recent years, due to the high resistance of influenza viruses to Amantadine, with constantly emerging new types of influenza, scientists recommended to combine it with Zanamivir and Oseltamivir.
Cytomegalovirus pneumonia usually appears in people who have disorders and weakened immune system. The causative agent is a herpes-virus-CMV. Many people are in contact with the virus without serious consequences, but for patients with weakened immunity characteristic inflammation of the alveoli, rhinitis, etc.
Particularly susceptible to this virus, patients suffering from the following diseases:
- AIDS (HIV).
- Bone marrow transplantation.
- Chemotherapy, etc.
Antiviral treatment with Ganciclovir and Foscarnet slows and stops viral replication, but does not destroy it fully. Due to the fact that the virus (CMV), weakens the immune system of the patient, increases the risk of other infections, for example viral-bacterial pneumonia.
The treatment of the disease
Before prescribing treatment, the doctor sends the patient for x-rays to confirm (or refute) the diagnosis.
Treatment of viral pneumonia complex. It includes symptomatic therapy, anti virus, getting rid of the infection (antibiotic therapy), improvement of immunity. Antiviral agents are only the agent, that is, the virus. Antibiotics used in the treatment of mixed bacterial-viral infection.
Principles of treatmentthis disease include bed rest, adequate nutrition (protein, vitamins from fruit and vegetables, lipids and carbohydrates). It is very important plenty of warm drinks (just water), as it improves the secretion of toxic substances from the body, which inevitably are formed during destruction of the cells of viruses and bacteria, liquefies phlegm.
Optional use of a simple humidification (frequent airing of the room, which is very important if the house is sick. This helps not only the patient, but also protects others from infection, as in dry air the reproduction of viruses and bacteria occurs with increased speed.
In the first 2 days (48 hours) after the disease specialists recommend receiving antiviral drugs, for example, Ingavirin, Tamiflu (if pathogen - the influenza virus) or Acyclovir (if the varicella zoster virus, herpes). They are most effective in this period.
Symptomatic treatment involves the use of fever reducing medicine, for example, Nurofen, Paracetamol, but the best effect was observed for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen). It is recommended to use Ibuprofen scientists (in accordance with the latest scientific research).
To facilitate the sputum is using expectorants (for example, Bronholitin, ACC, Mucosolvan, Ambrogeksal, Bromhexine, Ambrobene, etc.). Also connect the antibiotics.
In addition to etiotropic agents, in severe cases, prescribe corticosteroids, oxygen therapy (in hospital) etc. the Latter tool helps in case of lack of oxygen in the blood and prevent cyanosis.
Prevention of disease
The causative agents are spread by droplets, i.e. coughing or sneezing of the sick. Everyone should know these facts and to avoid sick people, don't forget to wash your hands frequently.
If people still get sick during treatment, you need to rest and drink plenty of fluids (just plain water) to prevent the development of complications in viral pneumonia.
There are various guidelines under which you can reduce the chance of developing the disease. Experts recommend to pass vaccination against measles and flu.
So, you should try to avoid contact with sick people. Great attention should be given to our own food, to eat more vegetables and fruits. In accordance with the latest scientific data every day, any person needs to eat 0.5 kg to 1 kg of any vegetables and fruits. It is very important to do sports, to carry out hardening, etc.
Again, it is important to follow basicrules of personal hygiene. Therefore, in the season of colds should wash hands frequently with soap (without it make sense in this wash just yet), especially after the street, before a meal. We must try not to touch your face or eyes with dirty hands. If, nevertheless, you must do this, be sure to thereafter wash your hands with soap and water. During outbreaks, after visiting public places or after contact with a sick person can wash the nose and mouth of saline solution (0.5 teaspoon of salt in 1 Cup of warm boiled water).