Causes, symptoms and treatment of staphylococcal pneumonia
In recent years, people are increasingly confronted with the disease as staphylococcal pneumonia. This disease may occur even in children in infancy. Who is this disease, what are the symptoms of the disease, causes and methods of treatment of the disease?
This type of pneumonia can be a disease (infection occurs through airborne droplets) or occur as a complication after suffering various ailments (flu or acute respiratory infection). Staphylococcal pneumonia develops very quickly.
The symptoms of staphylococcal pneumonia:
- the increase in body temperature;
- General malaise, chills, muscle weakness;
- may experience pain in the throat;
- cough, may be blood admixtures in sputum;
- pain in the sternum during coughing or deep breathing;
- severe shortness of breath, wheezing;
- cyanosis, symptoms of intoxication;
- the occurrence of cysts in the lung, containing air;
- abdominal distension, repeated vomiting;
- rapid chair;
- abscess (accumulation of pus).
The causes of the disease
The causative agent of staphylococcal pneumonia is most often the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. If it is contained in the normal microflora, the disease may be asymptomatic. Aktiviziruyutsya it by lowering immunity or weakening of the body in various pathologies.
Staphylococci in the lungs can get from other infectious places with blood flow. This occurs most often through the mouth, and because staph bacteria are deposited in the throat. In the environment many pathogenic staphylococci, they are always placed on the human body. If violated the integrity of the skin, these microorganisms can penetrate into the middle of the body and cause different manifestations of disease.
Most often this disease is common in infants, elderly, elderly who recover from SARS, the flu or suffered any serious illness. It also affects people after surgical interventions, injecting drug users, patients with cystic fibrosis, people with immune disorders.
The development of the disease is influenced by various factors. The most common is a bad environment, birth trauma, fetal hypoxia, bad habits, weak immune system, acquired heart disease and heart failure, recurrent bronchitis, diabetes.
Diagnosis of the disease
radiographs of the sternum" alt="the radiographs of the sternum">For accurate diagnosis and treatment by a physician conducts a diagnostic study.
Is a common blood test that shows inflammatory changes, possible anemia, moderate leukocytosis, shift formula to the left. If the disease be severe, the number of leukocytes decreases.
Is the radiograph of the sternum. This revealed a lobar lesion and infiltration of the lungs.
Sputum is taken for microscopic examination. This study allows to identify causative agents of disease (Staphylococcus aureus). Rent blood for serology that detects antibodies to the causative agent. Conducted a survey, external inspection of the patient. The analysis of the urine reveals hematuria.
The classification of staphylococcal pneumonia
Staphylococcal pneumonia occurs in various forms.
Bullous form of the disease (staphylococcal destruction) is the most common. This form of the disease is characterized by the formation of cavities of destruction in the first days of the disease. The walls of these cavities are very thin. Data destruction are not an abscess, they do not contain liquid. The prognosis for this form of the disease is usually favorable. After treatment recovery occurs, however, in the former destructions (cavities) can form air cysts.
Staphylococcal infiltration is severe, with pronounced intoxication. Chest x-ray showing infiltrative darkening, which may be of different sizes. Resolves this infiltration is very slow. After recovery may develop focal pulmonary fibrosis.
Abscessed form of the disease occurs in two stages:
- Before breakthrough of the abscess. This form is very hard, with fever and chills. There are severe pain in sternum, shortness of breath. Chest x-ray shows the infiltration of the pulmonary tissue.
- After the abscess burst into a bronchus. At this stage the patient begins to cough up lots of phlegm containing pus, and in some cases blood impurities. The body temperature of the patient is thus reduced, attenuated symptoms of intoxication. The x-ray shows a cavity whose horizontal levels.
Metastatic destruction - a very severe form. The cause of the ingress of infection in the lungs from a purulent inflammation of the blood. Typically, this form of the disease is characterized by bilateral lesions, and septic condition. X-rays of the sternum reveals multiple foci of abecedarian, combined with Bellamy.
In pulmonary-pleural form in the affectedlung development occurs abscessed or infiltrative lesions. While in the pathological process involves the pleura, there are pyopneumothorax, empyema.
The treatment of the disease
Immediately after diagnosis (before receiving the culture results), a doctor appointed by antibiotic therapy in high doses. This takes into account that the Staphylococcus in most cases resistant to penicillin. Receiving large quantities of antibacterial drugs can cause dysbiosis. So the doctor prescribes milk products containing bifidoflora or drugs that restore the microflora of the intestine.
Assigned detoxification therapy to eliminate toxins from the body. Symptomatic therapy: a variety are appointed antipyretics, analgesics, bronchodilators, mucolytics.
Appointed anti-inflammatory therapy, vitamin therapy, appointed by Immunostimulants.
Also an important factor in the treatment of this disease is diet. The menu should consist of nutritious but easily digestible food. It is recommended to increase consumption of vegetables and fruits. Also the patient must drink a lot because during illness the patient is prone to dehydration. It is recommended to drink milk, juices, jellies, compotes.
Complete recovery usually occurs six months later.
Complications and prevention of the disease
In the untimely appeal to the doctor or the wrong treatment of this form of pneumonia can occur with the following complications:
- empyema and pleural effusion;
- catarrhal or purulent otitis media;
- abscess or sepsis of the lungs;
- acute endocarditis or spontaneous pneumothorax;
- metastatic lesions of certain organs or of the skin;
- toxic pathology of the cardiac myocardium (drop in blood pressure, voiceless heart tones);
- hemorrhagic syndrome (coughing up blood and rashes on the skin).
Among young children remains high mortality when complicated form of staphylococcal pneumonia.
To avoid diseases you must adhere to preventive measures. Monitor personal hygiene (wash hands with soap and water to kill various micro-organisms on the skin surface).
Needs to be constant monitoring of the immune system (healthy diet, taking vitamin complexes).
You need to stop Smoking. You need to wear protective medical masks during seasonal diseases, to avoid hypothermia.
It is important to diagnose the disease in time, conduct timelyeffective treatment, because very high mortality rate.