Viral pneumonia: symptoms and treatment
When there is viral pneumonia, symptoms of the disease is largely similar to other respiratory diseases of viral nature, which complicates its diagnosis in the early stages. At the same time, timely identification and start of effective treatment is the key to a full recovery. Any pneumonia is very dangerous for its consequences and its viral form can join and bacterial component, which significantly complicates the process. Viral pneumonia is most common in children and becomes the result of frequent catarrhal phenomena.
The essence of pathology
Viral pneumonia is an acute inflammatory process in the lower respiratory tract, caused by pathogenic viruses. The main way of infection transmission by droplet infection. Most often, this form of the disease affects children (infection in adults is not more than 10% of all reported cases). Viruses, penetrating through the nose or mouth, to thrive, affecting cells covering the surface of the respiratory channels, and penetrate into the pulmonary alveoli.
Further process proceeds in the form of immune response to infection: increases the production of lymphocytes, which accumulate in the alveoli, form liquid accumulation, hampering the movement of air masses. The destruction of the cells and the concentration of mucus in the lungs causes a disturbance of oxygen supply and oxygen deficiency. The whole process is accompanied by acute inflammatory reactions.
Disease complications caused by the virus beyond the respiratory system begin to attack other internal organs, leading to different functional lesions. Virus attack significantly lowers the immune system, diverting the immune system than are pathogenic bacteria which strive to join the process. This creates a viral and bacterial form of pneumonia, which is characteristic for adults.
The etiology of the disease
The causative agents of viral pneumonia be different groups of viruses. Most often provided by the defeat viruses of subgroups A and b; respiratory syncytial virus (especially in children); parainfluenza different serotypes. Less common infection with adenovirus, metapneumovirus, measles virus and atypical pneumonia (SARS). In rare cases, found herpes simplex virus (can infect a newborn child), varicella, Epstein-Barr, Hantavirus, and cytomegalovirus (CMV with immune deficiency).
The risk of infectionincreased in the presence of favourable infection conditions. The factors that increase the probability of infection, include:
- the weakening of immune protection, immune deficiency;
- violation of sanitary-hygienic conditions at home or at work;
- raw, cold time of year, seasonal epidemics;
- age factor;
- cardiac diseases;
- chronic obstructive lung disease, bronchitis, tracheitis, and diseases of viral nature.
Classification of the disease
Viral pneumonia to ensure complete identification in the diagnosis is divided into several categories. According to the etiological factors it can be primary (direct infection) or secondary (develops on the background of their own chronic inflammation). Of popularity stands out lobar and lobular form. Localization of the lesion causing the following types: unilateral (total, lobar, segmental, abdelkawy, basal) and bilateral.
The symptoms of the disease
The symptoms of viral pneumonia vary depending on the type of pathogen and often resemble the signs of SARS and the General intoxication of the organism. On the severity of the manifestations of the disease is divided into the following stages:
- it is extremely heavy.
Regardless of the type of the agent identifies typical common symptoms:
When conducting medical and physical examination revealed the following symptoms:
- shortness of breath;
- violation of cardiac rhythm (tachycardia or bradycardia);
- wheezing sound when breathing;
- dull sound during percussion of the lung;
- the appearance of noise when the friction of the pleura;
- various rashes;
- respiratory failure.
Influenza pneumonia. The incubation period - from 8-10 hours to 3 days. Disease begins acutely, on a background of influenza. Intoxication has a distinct character: the fever for 7-9 days, the temperature of 38-39°C, headache, muscle and joint pain.
Cough with a small selection, sometimes with blood traces. Quite often, in acute development observed bleeding. A common phenomenon is the development in viral-bacterial form. When radiography is fixed quickly disappearing slight dimming that does not always correspond to the severity of the disease.
Respiratory syncytial infection. Pneumonia caused byrespiratory syncytial virus, is very often defined in young children (2-3 years). Lose most typical for a child with low immunity and premature babies. The most common causative organism - a paramyxovirus. Main symptoms: exhausting type unproductive cough, pain in the ears, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, wheezing, stridor.
The incidence of parainfluenza. Infection with the virus parainfluenza - a common enough phenomenon, including among infants. The incubation period is 1-5 days, infants can develop faster. Main symptoms: cough, runny nose, shortness of breath, wheezing, shortness of breath. Can present with conjunctivitis and severe rhinitis.
Complications of pneumonia. Viral pneumonia with inflammatory process and intoxication significantly weakens the body and reduces the immune defense. It causes complicating pathologies, including in other organs. The first complication is the accession of a bacterial infection.
The main effects of the development of viral pneumonia: pleurisy, bronchial obstructive syndrome, pulmonary edema, respiratory distress, chronic respiratory insufficiency, lesions of the organs outside the respiratory system. The disease in severe form may cause very dangerous consequences, including death.
The treatment of the disease
Treatment of viral pneumonia depends on the type of pathogen, severity of illness and complications.
Given the risk of development of pathology in children 5-6 months and older people (over 65 years) are subject to compulsory hospitalization in identifying the disease.
Inpatient treatment provides in the presence of serious chronic diseases of other organs and the appearance of respiratory distress. Mandatory drug therapy is based on complex effects: antiviral treatment, symptomatic treatment, rehabilitation and preventive measures.
Symptomatic therapy is carried out with the appointment of painkillers, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, expectorants. Apply etiotropic drugs, corticosteroids, oxygen therapy, cough drops. Fever is relieved with aspirin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen.
Goal of antiviral treatment is the destruction and elimination of the pathogen. In different types of infection is assigned to the following medications:
- Lose virus subgroup A : rimantadine and amantadine; effective combination of them with zanamivir and oseltamivir (native agents Tamiflu and relenza).
- The varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus: acyclovir.
- Cytomegalovirus:ganciclovir, foscarnet; immunoglobulin (with immunodeficiency).
- Respiratory syncytial virus in complicated development of the disease and in lesions with virus of sub-groups: virazole.
When symptomatic therapy is taken such drugs:
- Antipyretics: paracetamol, Nurofen.
- Expectorants: bronhikum, Mucosolvan, Ambrobene.
- Multivitamin complexes BioMax, vitum, komplivit.
Any scheme of treatment of pneumonia in addition to active treatment includes bed rest, quarantine, isolation, excessive drinking, maintain a healthy high-calorie foods, rich in vitamins.