Community-acquired pneumonia to find out what it is
Community-acquired pneumonia - what is it? This question worries many people. Because by itself, pneumonia is quite serious disease that can lead to death. And a few people think that it can be divided into community-acquired and nosocomial disease. Community-acquired or community-acquired pneumonia is pneumonia (pneumonia), only acquired outside of medical facilities. And it differs from hospital-acquired pneumonia list of agents and methods of treatment.
Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common acute infections. Statistics shows that about 12% of cases occur in people as young as 18 years old. And from 25 to 45% of cases occur in people older. Cases where acute community-acquired pneumonia were the cause of death of patients too much. It is noted that in young and middle age, it below, just under 3%, but after 60 years it increases substantially from 15% to 30% of the total number of cases.
The etiology and pathogenesis of community-acquired pneumonia
Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (that is, the conditions and causes of the disease), usually associated with a natural microflora that exists in the upper respiratory tract. It is believed that in the lower respiratory tract from there can penetrate any microorganism, pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia with a high degree of pathogenicity. These pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, as well as they could be Legionella, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, chlamydia and Klebsiella.
Community-acquired pneumonia are caused by the influence of mechanical factors, which are necessary for the protection of the lower respiratory tract from various infections. What it is, identify quite simple. These include internal processes, such as aerodynamic filtration and oscillation of the cilia, located in the ciliated epithelium of the mucous membranes in the bronchi. Also they include such familiar phenomena when the person sneezes and coughs. Even such factors include the immune system of the human body.
On the basis of medical practice, there are four mechanisms for community-acquired pneumonia. The first type includes aspiration of secretions, which is contained in the nasopharynx. When the micro-organisms from the oropharynx fall into the lower respiratory tract. The second mechanism considers the entry of microbes via contaminated aerosols. Known cases of infection via air conditioningand pipelines. The third mechanism relates to the ingress of microorganisms from another infectious focus (extrapulmonary). And the last mechanism of lung infection is the transfer of microorganisms from infectious lesions located in any other organ.
What is community acquired pneumonia?
Community-acquired pneumonia accompanied by high fever, presence of cough with sputum. Almost always when there is pain in the chest and shortness of breath that becomes more frequent precisely when inflammation of the lungs. The main method of diagnosis of pneumonia is considered to be any x-ray examination. As a rule, it just may reveal foci of changes in the lungs. It is therefore important to undergo fluorography once a year. In addition to the key characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia, there are often others, for example:
- a feeling of weakness that occurs for no apparent reason;
- high fatigue, even in the absence of stress;
- the presence of shortened percutory sounds over the affected areas in the lungs;
- the presence of specific respiratory, bronchial local;
- the presence of crepitate or focus finely wheezing;
- voice trembling and reinforced bronhofoniya.
All of these symptoms and signs can be identified in totality or partially. It all depends on the age of the patient, presence of other diseases in the body and severity of pneumonia.
Plays a big role in prevalence of the affected areas in the lungs, which are revealed only after carrying out radiography.
Also, this method of research helps the experienced physician to make an assessment of the dynamic of the disease and to choose the right course for treatment. And studied course of therapy, the same diagnostic method is used in order to ensure full recovery.
Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia
Competent and effective treatment for pneumonia may assign only an experienced doctor. It can be carried out in the hospital and home. The decision on hospitalization of patients with pneumonia is taken depending on the patient's age and severity of the disease. It is noted that community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults treated faster than the older generation. And this is due to the presence of stronger immune system. It is important to note that there are cases when the disease is cured completely impossible.
Usually this is attributed to the presence of other serious diseases in humans: diabetes, Oncology, pathology of the heart and kidneys. This may also include and peoplethe elderly, smokers or suffering from alcoholism. Therefore, for the prevention of this disease so it is important to follow a healthy lifestyle. Community-acquired pneumonia in adults and children requires almost the same treatment. It is necessary to take antibiotics and to carry out auxiliary therapy, symptomatic and immunomodulatory treatment.
The doctor may at some point stop taking the antibiotics based on a list of indicators. One of the important indicators is usually resistance temperature of the body when it does not exceed 37,5 °C. Along with this there can be weakness and cough, which after pneumonia may be present up to 2 months, especially if the patient smokes. Not an obstacle for the abolition of antibiotic therapy, the presence of rales and an elevated ESR parameter. The reason is that the percentage of pneumonia is not specific, and wheezing can be observed during the month after treatment.