Varieties, causes and treatment of pneumonia
Among adults and children often found such diseases as pneumonia. All organs and tissues need oxygen. The lungs are paired organs. Their main function is gas exchange between the blood and the environment. The lungs reside in the thoracic cavity. Outside they are surrounded by a dense, thin membrane (pleura). Each lung is composed of lobes, segments and lobules. In the right lung there are 3 lobes, and the left only 2.
Each lobe consists of several segments. The latter are divided into slices. When inflammation of the lung function is disturbed, which manifests as cough, shortness of breath. The process can involve a segment, several segments or the whole proportion of the body. Often there is a total inflammation. What are the etiology, clinic and treatment of pneumonia?
Not everyone knows what is pneumonia. Pneumonia is the inflammation of the lung primarily infectious nature that affects the interstitium and the alveoli. In most cases, this pathology occurs in an acute form with severe symptoms of intoxication. The acute form of the disease occurs both in children and adults. Pneumonia in adults is a fairly common pathology. The incidence is 10 to 14 cases per 1,000 people. The risk group includes children and the elderly (over 50 years). This lung disease is a danger to life and health if untreated.
For pneumonia high likelihood of complications (respiratory failure, pleural effusion, abscess) and mortality. Sometimes pneumonia occurs almost asymptomatic. The disease is identified only after the x-ray. This pulmonary pathology often develops in people from dysfunctional families, people serving sentences in places of deprivation of liberty, children living in children's homes. Very often, pneumonia develops after surgery or when a person is lying in bed. In the latter case, developing congestive pneumonia.
Varieties of pneumonia
There are different types of pneumonia. It is communicable and non-communicable, nosocomial or community-acquired. Depending on the magnitude of the inflammation there are the following forms of pneumonia:
The causes of the illness varies. Given the etiology of all infectious pneumonia subdivideon:
The first group includes the so-called pneumonia of Friedlander. The causative agent in this case is Klebsiella. From the group of viral infections is most common adenoviral pneumonia. Inflammation of the lung tissue is complicated and uncomplicated. According to the severity of clinical symptoms of acute, acute prolonged and chronic inflammation. Marvel may one lung or both. Bilateral inflammatory process is the most difficult. In pathomorphological characteristics of pneumonia are divided into focal, segmental and parenchymal.
The inflammation can be primary, secondary, post-traumatic, postoperative. Separate toxic pneumonia and aspiration. The primary form of inflammation develops most often on the background of hypothermia. As for the secondary forms, that are the cause of other serious somatic diseases (HIV infection, cancer). When inflammation in the tissues can accumulate various cellular elements. Often develops eosinophilic pneumonia. With her in the alveoli reveals many eosinophils. Pneumonia is serous, serous-hemorrhagic.
The pneumonia lobar or any other can be caused by various factors. If there is an infectious inflammation, pathogens may be: bacteria (pneumococci, streptococci, staphylococci, Haemophilus influenzae, coli, Clostridium, Legionella, E. coli), Mycoplasma, viruses (influenza virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus), fungi. In the latter case, develops Candida pneumonia. The most common causative agents are pneumococci. They found more than half of patients. Human infection in this situation occurs primarily by aerosol mechanism (droplet and airborne dust. This occurs through contact with a sick person. As for hospital-acquired pneumonia, the cause of infection can be medical staff. Often diagnosed friedlanders pneumonia. It accounts for 3 to 8% of all patients.
Inflammation of infectious etiology may develop under the following circumstances:
- against the background of stagnation in the pulmonary circulation at strict bedrest;
- after a closed or open injury of the chest;
Allergic pneumonia may be the result of the inhalation of various chemicals, dust, microorganisms. Known pathology called the disease of the farmer. It is typical for persons engaged inagriculture. The main cause of the disease - inhalation of moldy microscopic fungi contained in the hay. Currently the disease is rare. The infants may develop lipoid pneumonia. She is still referred to as oil. It develops when the fluid entering the lungs via the nasopharynx and the trachea. This occurs during feeding. In older children this condition can be associated with uncontrolled use of nasal drops on an oil basis.
May develop radiation pneumonia. It is formed after exposure on the human body high doses of ionizing radiation. This is possible with radiation accidents, as well as the treatment of malignant tumors with the use of ionizing radiation. The likelihood that will develop arkansana pneumonia high if the person has a lung tumor. Sepsis (acute bacterial infection of the blood with the development of the inflammatory response in all organs) due to septic pneumonia. In this case, a high percentage of lethal outcome.
Largely depends on person's risk factors for the development of small focal pneumonia or any other of its form. Major risk factors include:
- the presence of chronic diseases of the pharynx or of the nasopharynx: tonsillitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis);
- lack of vitamins;
- endocrine pathology;
- the abuse of alcoholic beverages.
In children the development of focal pneumonia and inflammation of other form can lead to the following circumstances: hypoxia during fetal life, prematurity, malnutrition, cystic fibrosis, congenital immunodeficiency States, defects. The risk factors of inflammation in adults applies to a long stay in the supine position, addiction, heart failure.
Signs of pneumonia are different. Pneumonia, occurring in severe form, can manifest itself in the following symptoms:
- productive cough;
- the pain in the chest;
- shortness of breath;
For pneumonia characterized by asymptomatic latent period. Patients may experience malaise, sweating, weakness. Temperature may remain within normal limits. The development of a transient pneumonia is often a complication of the flu. In this situation, the disease occurs immediately. In the absence ofproper treatment may lead to the death of the sick person.
Infectious form of inflammation often occurs with symptoms of intoxication. Legionella pneumonia and all other atypical forms of the disease occur more easily. For them, the typically gradual onset, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, dry cough. Every form of inflammation has its own characteristics. For example, the main manifestations of focal pneumonia are: fever, chills, weakness, malaise, headache, sweating. When large lesions may cause cyanosis and shortness of breath. For coughs there is pain. The disease in most cases lasts for 1-2 weeks.
Lobar (croupous) pneumonia develops suddenly. Patients worried about the rise of temperature, weakness, productive cough, shortness of breath. A typical manifestation of lobar pneumonia is chest pain. It is able to increase when you inhale and the torso. In the development of croupous inflammation there are 4 stages: the stage of the tide, red obucheniya, gray obucheniya and resolution. This disease often affects adults than children.
If you suspect pneumonia, you should definitely visit a doctor (GP). For accurate diagnosis it is necessary:
- to hold General and biochemical blood analysis;
- to listen light;
- to conduct a medical examination;
- to interview the patient;
- to measure body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate;
- to conduct x-ray examination;
- to carry out an ECG and ultrasound of the heart.
During the physical examination fails to detect the dullness of percussion sound, hard breathing, wheezing, crepitation. Dull sound when percussion is detected when fibrous tissue replaces the pulmonary parenchyma. The most important value in diagnosis have symptoms of the disease. In the General analysis of blood revealed nonspecific signs of inflammation.
The final diagnosis is based on radiographic studies. It is held in the beginning of the disease and after therapeutic measures to assess the effectiveness of therapy. Allows x-ray to exclude other pathology (tuberculosis, cancer). If a person has infectious pneumonia, it is required to install the agent. This can be analyzed sputum.
What to do for pneumonia and pneumonia?
Treatment depends on the form of the disease. Treatment of infectious inflammation of the lung tissue involves the use of antibiotics, expectorants drugs, mucolytics, physiotherapy, physical therapy, excessive drinking, of inhalation.
src="/respiratory/images/9-7.jpg" title="Azithromycin in the treatment of pneumonia" alt="Azithromycin in the treatment of pneumonia">the Treatment is prescribed by a doctor. To treat pneumonia at home is unacceptable, as possible complications. If you have a bacterial or serous hemorrhagic pneumonia, the treatment involves the destruction of the pathogen. The drugs of choice are macrolides (Azithromycin", "Sumamed"), penicillins ("Amoxiclav"), cephalosporins ("CEF"). They are indicated for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.
If a person is sick in the hospital, the antibiotics preference for penicillins, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins and carbapenems. To improve sputum discharge and its dilution are applied, "ACC", "Mucosolvan". These medicines indicated for cough with phlegm. At high temperature (above 38.5°C) can be used antipyretics. Pneumonia with no symptoms symptomatic therapy is not carried out. In the case of the allergic nature of inflammation, the doctor may prescribe antihistamines.
For the normalization of breathing and eliminating shortness of breath are appointed by inhalation. With this purpose it may use bronchodilators. In severe cases, glucocorticoids are used. For a speedy recovery the patient needed to stay in bed, take vitamins, eat a healthy diet. In the phase of recovery, the treatment involves physiotherapy (UHF-therapy, electrophoresis, massage). In severe pneumonia in children may be conducted infusion therapy.
Thus, pneumonia is a frightening disease that is fraught with serious complications. The basis of treatment of disease is the use of antimicrobials.