The symptoms and treatment of Central lung cancer
Central lung cancer is the most common type of cancer. This type of cancer develops from the cells of epithelial tissue of the bronchial mucosa. Most often occurs defeat of the Central sections of the bronchi, this captured the individual volume segments. This feature distinguishes this type of cancer and peripheral forms of cancer, in which the defeat of the small bronchi.
Features of localization of a tumor-like neoplasm in relation to the lumen of the pulmonary bronchi allow doctors to highlight a few main varieties of Central cancer:
- endobronchial variant, which is characterized by the occurrence of tumor within the bronchus;
- peribronchial form, which is characterized by the development of cancerous growths on the outside of the bronchus.
These two Central varieties of cancer have different symptoms and course of the disease. Patients Central cancer of the right lung detected more often and is according to medical statistics, about 52 % of all diagnosed cases of the disease.
The risk groups include male population in the age of 40-45 years. Especially susceptible to men who abuse tobacco.
Signs and symptoms of the disease
This type of cancer has distinctive symptoms that are characterized by multiple clinical manifestations and their features. This disease is characterized by the occurrence of metastasis, hematogenous or lymphogenous wearing nature.
Most often seen in development of disease lesions in the upper lobes of the right lung that is associated with their large clearance. This kind of cancer describes the appearance of early metastases affecting the brain tissue, liver tissue, tissue of the adrenal glands and bones.
Typical symptomatic manifestations are detected in the early stages of development of cancer diseases, because in the process of development of the disease is involvement of the major bronchi.
Experts in the field of Oncology highlights the main group of signs characteristic of this disease:
- The primary symptoms manifested in the early stages of development and is the result of the malignant node in the lumen of the affected bronchus.
- Secondary symptoms manifested at later stages of disease progression, at a time when they begin to develop complications, having an inflammatory character. These symptoms can develop as a result of the processtumor metastasis in different organs of the human body. The appearance of secondary signs tells about the spread of the damage.
- Common symptoms characterize the impact of the disease on the body and can indicate changes that occur as a result of progression of cancer tumors in the lung tissue.
The degree of manifestation of certain features depends on the localization of the cancer, its forms and prevalence.
The earliest symptom is cough, which initially manifested in the form of coughing. In the process of progression of the disease the cough becomes chronic, which becomes paroxysmal in nature. This form of cough is characteristic of smokers that have solid “experience” of Smoking.
Typical symptoms also include loss of weight and pain in the chest. In addition, there is the development of shortness of breath that will disturb the patients.
The disease, which develops peribronchial, has no distinct symptoms.
The main reasons for the development of Central lung cancer and its diagnosis
Research conducted in recent years have proved that lung cancer is developing mainly under the influence of exogenous factors, among which the major role is played by environmental degradation and Smoking.
Environmental factors provoke the initiation and progression of cancer of the human respiratory system. Developing industrial production, which is responsible for the release into the environment of a large number of products of its activity, has a negative impact on the condition of the human body. The development of cancer contributes to the increase in the number of vehicles which throws into the air a huge volume of harmful substances, among which there are a large number of carcinogenic compounds.
The second most important factor in the development of cancer is tobacco abuse. In the smoke, which is inhaled into the lungs while Smoking, contains a huge number of substances contributing to the development of cancerous tumors in the lungs of a smoker.
At the initial stage of the survey process is a survey of the patient and assessment of the state of health on the basis of his complaint.
Then conducted a comprehensive examination, which includes:
- assessing physical data of the patient;
- holdingstudies of blood and urine;
- is cytological examination of sputum obtained from bronchi;
- conduct blood chemistry;
- the biopsy of the lymph nodes;
- pleural puncture;
- conducting diagnostic thoracotomy;
- the use of fibrobronchoscopy;
- the use of radiography and computed tomography of the lungs.
To identify a complete picture of the disease is required to determine the morphological nature of the tumor.
Treatment of lung cancer
For the treatment of Central lung cancer used methods of radiation and chemotherapy, surgery and methods of combination therapy.
Radiation exposure is used as a radical method in the treatment of cancer disease. There are two types of radiation exposure - radiation therapy and radiosurgery. Radiotherapy is used in cases where lung cancer is the second or third stage of development of the disease. Radiotherapy is the impact on tumor and metastases of a powerful beam of gamma rays. The effect obtained from the use of this method, has a high resistance, which makes frequent use of this technique in the treatment of cancer of the lung.
Radiosurgery is a method of bloodless medical treatment to the tumor. It allows the removal of cells of tumor masses in all parts of the body of the patient.
Surgery is considered a radical method of treatment of cancer. This method of treatment can guarantee full freedom from cancer in the absence of metastases. The method is applied in those cases where tumor formation is considered to be operable, and the condition of the organism is satisfactory.
Chemotherapy - treatment method, which is based on the use of medical drugs that can have a detrimental impact on cancerous cells. This method is used in combination with radiation therapy for more effective impact.
Prevention of disease and prognosis
Today, the prognosis is poor, as in lung cancer mortality is 90 % for two years. The rate of survival depends on successful treatment.
The survival rate in the first stage is 80 %, second 40 % and third 20 %.
With timely application of treatment, the survival rate in the five-year period is increased to 40-45 %.
High mortality rate from cancer is forced to develop preventive measures aimed at the prevention of disease.
The complex of the actions directed onthe prevention of development of malignant tumors, includes:
- education of citizens;
- the decrease in the number of smokers;
- conducting regular surveys;
- timely treatment in the early stages;
- reducing the negative influence of adverse environmental factors.
Healthy lifestyle, regular monitoring of body condition and timely treatment can prevent the development of such disease as lung cancer.