Find out: lung cancer
Lung cancer is an incredibly serious disease that can quickly lead to death if no timely medical assistance, among all oncological diseases the most common. In this disease epithelial tissue, which is located in the lungs begins to regenerate in malignant education. The result is a metabolic air in the human body.
Smoking and lung cancer are closely linked. Death occurs in about 70-90%. Previously, it was considered a man's disease, but in the last 10 years the number of cases of cancer in women increased by 10%. This is due to the fact that more and more women has a harmful habit - Smoking.
After the detection of the disease can live up to ten years, depending on exactly where the source of the disease. If the tumor invaded the important parts of the lungs, where the blood vessels and Airways, the person can accommodate a maximum of 4 years. As a rule, in this case, the disease develops very quickly and after a few months, comes death. The survival rate for lung cancer compared to other cancer is very low .
Lung cancer symptoms at an early stage of development to notice is a challenge, because they are either insignificant or does not occur.
Diagnosing the problem is difficult due to some factors, namely:
- Malignant cells do everything possible to disguise themselves as normal and at first did not occur to them. So diagnosing the problem very difficult, even if you use the method of visualization.
- The center of disease begins to masquerade as a bone.
- Near the hearth there's no cancer in the lymph nodes, which could begin to respond to the disease and prevent its development, as is the case with breast cancer.
- Due to the lack of receptors in the lungs, which could set the pain signal to notice cancer only at a late stage of the disease.
- Quite often, the disease may be confused with pneumonia, and then therapy is medically and not by surgery as need in Oncology.
Diagnosis of lung cancer includes numerous studies: morphological, histological, clinical, their study and further analysis.
At the same time draws attention to the signs of the disease that occur in a patientperson, namely:
- The patient may complain of primary symptoms, which include coughing up blood, cough, people quickly lose weight, while breathing there is a bad smell.
- After this you need to conduct a more detailed study in order to determine the differential nature of the symptoms.
Modern medicine uses diagnostic screening that enables you to diagnose all the symptoms and the presence of cancer at an early stage of development. With such a method very easy to identify non-small cell lung cancer.
In some patients, the first signs may differ significantly from those of whom they say doctors (cough, shortness of breath, hemoptysis, etc.). Among the symptoms you can add quite frequent and strong headaches, sometimes changing the color of the eyes, decreased mobility and pupil size, there is a General weakness, increased body temperature.
Causes of lung cancer
The human lung is one organ in the body, which is in contact with the outside world. When air enters the alveoli in the same form in which it is inhaled. All the particles that fall into the lungs, begins to settle on the mucous membrane. Due to the fact that there is constant contact with the external environment, the lung membranes are updated very quickly. Lung cancer may occur due to ingress of foreign objects and gases, namely:
- cigarette smoke;
- car exhaust gases;
- gases and harmful substances that set at work the factories.
Due to constant or frequent exposure to harmful particles in the alveoli, the cells can start to mutate. As a result, there is a tumor in the lungs, which soon may turn into a malignant tumor. In some situations, the causes of cancer are quite natural: the cells of the lungs is very quickly updated, and the old do not have time to die, a tumor that over time may begin to degenerate into malignant. It is worth noting that the etiology of lung cancer today is not fully understood.
Classification of the disease
Classification of lung cancer according to the location of the source of the disease:
- Central cancer. Occurs at the point where it joins the major vessels and Airways.
- Peripheral cancer. Develops on the sides of the lung where there are small blood vessels and alveoli.
- Apical cancer. Observed in the upper part of the lungs, closer to the head of the patient. In this casethere are many different symptoms that can confuse the experts.
- Atypical localization. The disease affects half of the mediastinum, the body that connects the lungs.
If to consider types of cancer depending on the type of tumor, distinguish knotty, branched, gnarled-branched (mixed) lung cancer.
Stages of lung cancer
Besides that there are different forms of cancer, yet there are several stages of disease development. The first stage is characterized by the fact that the tumor has a size of not more than 3 cm, no lymph node involvement, metastases are absent. To diagnose the first stage is very difficult.
Cancer of the right lung of the second stage is characterized by the presence of the tumor size from 3 to 6 cm Such tumors can cause obstruction of the bronchi. The x-rays they can be seen very clearly. If you diagnose the problem in the second stage, it is quite possible to cure. The metastases can be or not to be, can spread to other organs.
The third stage - a tumor more than 6 cm It can be of different size and moves to the chest wall, the diaphragm or on the area that separates the lungs. As a result, it is observed the seal is just easy. Metastases occur in organs that are far enough away from the lungs.
The fourth stage is already inoperable lung cancer. No matter how big is the tumor, the cancer spreads beyond the lungs and affects the organs that are close to the heart, digestive system, spine. In the pleural cavity begins to form exudate. Occurs lymph nodes, there are a huge number of distant metastases.
How to diagnose cancer of the right lung
In order to put such a dangerous diagnosis, as cancer of the left lung or the right, you need to conduct a lot of research that can be done only by professionals. For diagnosis need to be clusters of symptoms, such as pulmonary, hormonal, extrapulmonary.
Some tumors can secrete a specific hormones or substances which mimic the hormones. As a result, changes the whole clinical picture of the disease. In order to deliver the primary diagnosis, you need to find at least one symptom.
At around 35% of all cases of lung cancer observed in patients with glandular cancer. In this case a malignant tumor is formed not in the epithelial tissue, and glandular.
Very rare to find bronchioloalveolar cancer in whichthere is a malignant tumor in epithelial tissue. Is this type of lung cancer because the tumor develops in one layer and do not germinate in blood vessels or in the pleura. The distinctive feature of this tumor is that it does not form its own stroma, and uses the walls that separate the alveoli from one another. To diagnose this type of cancer is very difficult in the early stages of development, especially when you consider the fairly specific symptoms.
Mediastinal form of cancer occurs also not very frequently characterized by a one-way process of lymph nodes. To diagnose the problem hard enough.
Treatment of lung cancer
Standard methods of treatment include:
- chemotherapy, which allows you to stop the growth of tumors;
- radiation therapy, which is quite hard types of radiation affect a malignant tumor.
Can use any one method, or several at the same time.
For example, small cell lung cancer cannot be cured surgically, but it is quite effectively treated by chemotherapy.
Very important is the role of palliative care in lung cancer treatment, which aims to facilitate breathing in a human patient. For this you can use different techniques, special breathing exercises, oxygen therapy, opioids, etc.
In addition, some professionals may talk about the treatment of cancer folk remedies, but they are best used as prophylaxis. As shown by numerous practice, more attention is paid to the traditional treatment of the disease. More effective treatment will be when a sick man will refuse from Smoking, eliminate dust carcinogens that irritate the lining of the lungs and provoke a more rapid development of the disease.
Prevention of lung cancer
To reduce the risk of cancer of the lungs is to carry out some preventive measures. With their help it is possible to avoid completely or reduce to a minimum the risk of lung cancer. All procedures are divided into primary (elgiganten) and secondary (clinical) group.
Prevention of lung cancer is very simple, every person can observe it:
- give up Smoking;
- follow a special diet against the development of cancer.
- use of medications medical origin.
It is very importantto remove the external factors that can provoke not only the deterioration of human health, but also cause the formation of tumors in the lungs. Unfortunately, to do this on their own can not, but there are numerous government programs that are struggling with air pollution.
Pay attention to your diet, because it affects your health. In recent years has become quite popular in a healthy lifestyle, including healthy eating. In addition, there are several options of diets, which include receiving products, can reduce the risk of lung cancer and other cancers.
Experts recommend eating grains, nuts, natural chocolate and dried fruits.
If to speak about secondary prophylactic measures, they are that the person must undergo regular examinations and tests that will help to detect the problem. With the help of special devices - low spiral CT, can detect the presence of lung cancer at a very early stage.
Lung cancer is a very serious disease that is on the first place of mortality worldwide, and therefore, the appearance of the first symptoms should see a specialist. It should be required to conduct examinations which allow diagnosis at a stage when the cancer can still be cured.