Tumor a tumor marker of lung cancer
Lung cancer is a serious disease, the outcome of which depends on the correct diagnosis and timely treatment of the patient. Tumor markers helps the physician to establish the degree of development of malignant tumors in the patient.
Tumor marker lung cancer allows on the basis of laboratory studies of urine and blood of the patient, the study of their qualitative and quantitative indicators to put the diagnosis, determining the stage of the cancer process.
General characteristics of the special substances necessary for the diagnosis of the tumor
For tumor markers of lung cancer using 2 indicators: the sensitivity and specificity. Algorithm study allows to establish the value of the result.
Non-small cell lung cancer identificireba with such labels as:
- The NSE;
- CYFRA 21-1.
They have high and moderate importance for this type of tumor. Specific markers allows you to set the size of benign tumors with a negative result value. The study set a threshold concentration of the counter tumor cells in patients. Cancer-embryonic antigen is not related to the specific indicators in patients with lung cancer, pancreas, the gallbladder. It is determined in individuals who abuse tobacco and having a benign tumor.
CA 72.4 is found in patients with a tumor of the lung tissue, and CYFRA 21-1 to diagnose cancer malignancy in the early stages of development.
Using antigen CEA is the assessment of results of chemotherapy, established the occurrence of relapse of the disease. The normal level of CEA is 0-5 mg/ml.
The combination of specific tumor cells in lung cancer
Tumor markers in lesions of the respiratory organs malignant cells are used comprehensively for the delivery of a correct diagnosis. Small cell carcinoma of the lung is determined using the label Pro-GRP (progestin releasing protein). Lung cancer set with the use of CA 19-9 and CEA in combination with AFP. In some cases, prescribe the study of using CYFRA 21-1 and NSE.
Small cell tumor - an aggressive state with extensive metastases and adverse current. The tumor marker NSE installs small cell lung cancer, and markers CYFRA 21-1 squamous find the form of a malignant tumor. The squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) levels in the absence of the tumor is less than 2 ng/ml, and NSE has a value of 12 ng/ml. blood test for lung cancer takes into account the type of disease.
When cancer is suspectedfor research use markers: PEA, Tu M2-RK, CA-72-4. Large cell carcinoma is defined using markers: SCC, CYFRA 21-1, CEA. Squamous cell tumor is diagnosed with the use of counters such as CYFRA 21-1, CEA. Elevated levels of tumor markers in the blood is not a basis for establishing a definitive diagnosis of cancer.
Special conditions influencing the levels of markers in the blood
On the level of markers in the blood of the patient is influenced by such factors as the temperature at which serum is stored, the storage time of the material before the study (no more than 1 hour). The system is sensitive serum: emulsionny or ikterichnost its composition, affect the level of NSE. The connection model gives the growth of the NSE, and the use of drugs increases the magnitude of the DOG.
The increase of CYFRA 21-1 indicates a change in tumor stage and does not exclude various modifications of malignant neoplasms. The concentration of the marker may decrease after surgical treatment and evidence of its effectiveness.
The tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 is determined by the rate of decrease of its level after the surgery (several hours). The lack of decrease indicates that the rest of the tumor.
Chronic hepatitis or fibrosis of the lungs contributes to the appearance of possible positive results in the study of the tumor with the use of markers. Smokers in the formulation of the analysis have an increased level of the marker even in the absence of the tumor.
A framework for the study of tumor markers in lung cancer
In the course of therapy, the treating physician uses the algorithm of applying cancer markers. The first step is to establish their value before therapy and to scrutinize the markers that were raised.
Within 2-10 days after surgery is necessary to re-examine the parameters for defining the initial level. The second study performed 30 days after surgery. Subsequent courses prescribed for cancer of meters after 3 months (within 1-2 years). The doctor recommends that you set the number of markers before prescribing a new therapy. Suspicions of a relapse of illness or the appearance of metastases is supported by the re-determination of the OHM.
The doctor formulates a plan of laboratory examination of the patient and interpreting indicators. Laboratory tests when examining patients with risk of lung cancer is carried out with the use of oncostatic CEA, NSE, CYFRA 21-1, CA 125, SCC. If you suspect a malignant lung tumor, the doctor takes into account the concentration of NSE in blood cells.For clinical diagnostic use NSE value in the range of 25 ng/ml.
How is the study of the use of markers?
Fragment 21-1 cytokeratin required to establish lung cancer. For analysis, patients taking blood. NKR-analysis of mutations in non-small cell lung cancer involves the study of the tumor tissue for assessment of prognosis of the disease.
To donate blood you need in the morning before a meal. 3 days before the test the patient should not drink alcohol, eat fatty foods. It is recommended to reduce physical exertion, not to use drugs to curb Smoking. Immunochemical study of blood is preferably carried out in a permanent laboratory for the doctor to determine NSE, SCC, cytokeratin 19, IMM.
You must do not a single study but a series of tests to determine the development of cancer.
Blood counts in lung cancer differ significantly from normal values. The concentration of the antigens for a certain period of time. The doctor, knowing the process of increasing the level of cancer marks, predicts the growth rate of the tumor.
Interpreting the results of a blood test for tumor markers
To avoid mistakes in diagnosis, it is necessary for a transcript analysis to see a specialist. Higher scores of tumor markers in the blood indicate the need for thorough diagnosis. CEA normal is not more than 5.0 mg/ml. the increase indicates the likelihood of lung cancer or stomach. Norma REA, the non-Smoking people is <2.5 ng/ml. For the study of lung tumors set the size of the markers NSE, CEA, CA 125, CA 19-9. The normal concentration of CA-125 in the blood is 0-30 IU/ml. abnormal value for CA 19-9 equal to 40 IU/ml. - normal CYFRA 21-1 is 2.3 ng/ml, and its increase is detected when carcinoma of the lung.
The agent REA-sensitive neoplasm in the lung tissue, in a healthy person it is not in the body. The CEA indicator exceeds the normal value when you have low immunity and weakening of the body after illness. For the study, in rare cases, the patient take the urine.
SCC antigen is encountered in the development of squamous cell carcinoma, has a normal figure, enclosed within 1.5 ng/ml. It increases the appearance of tumors of the squamous epithelium of the bronchi.
TG determines the metastasis of a primary tumor in the tumor in the lungs. Its normal value is no more than 60ng/ml. Marker Tu M2-RK refers to the process of tumor development in dynamics, has a boundary value of 17-20% d/ml Growththe level of Tu M2-RK occurs with the development of tumors in lungs. After therapy changes the value of markers in the patient's blood. A slower decline in the level label indicates hidden metastases.
Study of the use of tumor markers is of great importance for diagnosis. Comparing the obtained results with the normal value of the counter of malignant cells, the doctor prescribes treatment, is able to restore health and prolong the patient's life.