The symptoms and treatment of cancer of the bronchi
Serious cancer is cancer of the bronchi, symptoms which depend on the stage of the disease. Bronchi is a well-developed branches of the windpipe, which continue inside the bronchi. From each main bronchus secondary depart, which are divided into even smaller branches. This system is called the “bronchial tree.”
Often cancer of the bronchi are considered along with cancer of the lung (bronchopulmonary cancer). If the education comes from a large or small bronchus, the disease is called “Central lung cancer” or cancer of the bronchus, if the tissue of the lung - “peripheral cancer”.
The causes of pathology
Cancer occurs when a malignant degeneration of the tissue of the bronchi. Scientists proved that the most common cause, contributing to the development of malignant tumors is Smoking. Nicotine affects the mucous membranes of the bronchi and the lungs and also triggers the release of large amounts of mucus. Epithelial cilia, which are located in the bronchi and to cleanse the respiratory tract, are not able to do it, as covered with mucus. Consequently different particles penetrating the respiratory process of inhalation, are deposited on the bronchi, contributing to the development of malignant tumors.
Other causes that increase the risk of developing the disease: radiation, constant contact with chemicals, asbestos, volatile substances, work in mines, cement and glass plants, chronic pneumonia or bronchitis, bronchiectasis, scarring in the lung after suffering tuberculosis.
Clinical manifestations of cancer of the bronchi depends on the degree of its development, the size of the affected bronchus and the individual condition of the patient. There are 4 stages of tumor development.
- Stage 1 is characterized by a tumor size not more than 3 cm, absence of lesions in the lymph nodes and metastasis.
- Stage 2 - the tumor size of 5-6 cm, it may spread to other organs, affects the nearest lymph nodes, metastases are absent.
- Stage 3 is characterized by a tumor size more than 6 cm, lesions of the main or adjacent bronchus, spreading to other organs of the chest.
- Stage 4 is characterized by the appearance of metastases.
A malignant tumor can cause different symptoms, whenthe discovery that a doctor's consultation. Here are the main ones:
- dry or wet cough;
- sputum pale pink, sometimes with blood streaks;
- weakness, increased body temperature (37-38°C);
- chest pain;
- recurrent bronchitis and inflammation of the lung - pnevmonity, occur for the reason that as a result of obstruction by the tumor of the bronchus develops atelectasis, that is, bezuschusst any lobe of the lung, where infection develops;
- difficulty breathing, shortness of breath;
- weight loss;
- the face becomes grayish-pale color;
- is retraction of the chest wall;
- violation of krovotoka from the brain to the upper part of the body that develop symptoms such as a hoarse sipyaschie breath, swelling of the neck and face, inability to sleep lying down.
Upon detection of the symptoms listed above should immediately contact the doctor.
To accurately diagnose cancer of the bronchi, it is necessary to conduct CT (computed tomography) and x-ray examination. For confirmation of the diagnosis requires histological examination of a bronchial tissue sample that is taken during bronchoscopy (direct examination of the bronchial tree using a special instrument, an endoscope). When detected in the tissues of cancer cells, the exact diagnosis. The presence of cancer cells will also be tested sputum, swabs from the surface of the tumor.
To study the stages of cancer, destruction of the body and spread of metastasis need additional treatment:
- General analysis of blood, as in oncological diseases possible indicators such as elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sed rate), leukocytosis, anemia.
- To review the status of the mediastinal lymph nodes mediastinoscopy is required is a method that produces a transverse incision above the jugular notch of the sternum is dissected subcutaneous muscle of the neck and is a direct visual and palpation examination, and then enter mediastinoscopy for detailed studies and, if necessary, biopsy of the lymph nodes, trachea, initial segments of the main bronchus, major vessels. Possible this procedure is replaced by a more secure (CT, bronchoscopy).
- Skeletal scintigraphy - a method for determining the presence of metastasis in the bones by introducing into the body of radioactive isotopes and obtaining information through their emitted radiation.
- Bone marrow biopsy is performed todefinition of bone lesions cancer.
- Ultrasound of the liver.
- A brain CT scan determines the presence of metastasis in the brain.
Treatments and predictions
The projections for cancer of the bronchus, depending on the time of diagnosis: the earlier was diagnosed with a disease, the higher the chances of survival.
Cancer treatment is to remove surgically a malignant tumor, one or more affected lobes of the lung (lobectomy and bilobectomy) or entire lung (pneumonectomy). This is the most effective, but very complex method, so you need to consult a qualified surgeon. The operation is accompanied by a set of pre - and post-operative procedures.
Preoperative preparation includes:
- Full, rich in protein and vitamins diet.
- Anti-inflammatory therapy (antibiotics etc.), including local application of antibiotics by bronchoscopy.
- A welcome tonic for cardiovascular medicines.
- The implementation of therapeutic and breathing exercises.
Conditions postoperative recovery:
- A constant supply of oxygen to the patient.
- Continuous monitoring of pulse, blood pressure, respiration rate and General condition of the patient.
- After recovering from anesthesia, being in polusidya position.
- 2-3 days after the surgery, an active aspiration (the sampling of biological fluids by vacuum) blood and air from the pleural cavity through the left drains.
- A course of antibiotics.
- Taking the necessary medications depending on the individual status of the operated, the volume and flow of the operation, possible complications.
- Within 2-3 days after the procedure diet.
- On the 2nd day after surgery start to perform breathing exercises.
With the development of metastasis is a complex anticancer treatment, which consists in the following methods:
- Remote gamma-irradiation region of the tumor and metastases for several weeks before surgery.
- Extensive removal of the mediastinal lymph nodes.
The operation is not carried out:
- On the 1st stage, when it is possible to use more sparing methods of therapy (radiotherapy).
- In that case, if it is known that it will have no effect because of the neglect of the tumor, for example, in the presence of a large number of metastases. Then to prolong the life of the patient is prescribed radiation therapy.
Ways of cancer preventionbronchi
To reduce the risk of cancer of the bronchi should adhere to the following measures:
- Timely visit of a doctor upon detection of disturbing symptoms.
- Timely treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory processes of the upper respiratory tract.
- Quitting Smoking.
In addition, you must observe safety precautions, using protective equipment in hazardous industries, for example, when working with chemicals, asbestos, or in the mines.