Lung cancer: the clinical picture of metastatic
One of the most threatening diseases of the lower respiratory system is lung cancer metastases which can be detected in various organs.
Any cancer is a potential danger to the sick person and is characterized by the following features that distinguish it from other diseases:
- uncontrolled cell growth;
- the possibility of metastasis to other organs;
- the difficulty of cure in the later stages;
- poor prognosis.
Lung cancer is increasingly found in adults. It may be localized in any part of the respiratory organ. In most cases, cancer is found only in one lung, while the second remains healthy. However, over time, the metastasis of cancer cells in a healthy body. If no one simple person can still survive, the cancer of both lungs is irreversible.
What are the etiology, clinic and treatment of this disease?
Features of lung cancer
Lung cancer is a malignant pathology, which is formed from the epithelium of the bronchi. Can affect both large and small bronchi. Depending on localization distinguish the following forms of cancer:
The Central localization of the tumor occurs in most patients. Thus the pathological lesion is formed in large bronchi. According to the histological structure of the tumor secrete 4 types of cancer: squamous cell, small cell, large-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma. In the latter case, the tumor develops from the glandular tissue of the body. Each form of cancer has its own characteristics. For example, squamous cell lung cancer is characterized by slow growth. He does not give metastases in the early stages. As for the small cell form, it is developing rapid.
It is known that metastases formed more often in the 3rd and 4th stages of the disease. In this situation, apply the TNM classification, which takes into account the localization and the size of tumor, status of lymph nodes (metastasis) and the presence of distant metastases. According to this classification there are 4 stages of lung cancer. At I stage is determined by tumor size less than 3 cm, localized in one segment of the lung. Regional and distant metastases are absent. With stage II cancer, the tumor may reach 6 cm. it Is located within the segmental bronchus. Possible presence of metastasis to nearby lymph nodes. At stage III, the tumor moves to the adjacent lobe, or main bronchus. Its value is more than 6 cm There are metastases in the lymph nodes,located in the bifurcation of the trachea next to trachea. The most severe is stage IV. If it can affect the other lung, are involved in the process other internal organs.
Causes of lung cancer are different. Main etiological factors are:
- inhalation of carcinogens (tobacco smoke);
- the presence in the body of viral infections;
- exposure of humans to ionizing radiation;
- the presence of asbestosis;
- the impact of radon;
- harmful production factors (exposure to dust, arsenic, Nickel);
- family history (cases of lung cancer in parents, brothers and sisters);
- the presence of chronic disease (tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis);
- endocrine diseases.
All the factors can be divided into controlled and independent of man. The main cause of cancer is Smoking. In this situation, the importance of both active and passive Smoking. The smoke contains dozens of substances that increase the risk of cancer. The most dangerous are the isotopes of radon, nitrosamines, benzopyrene. Found that nicotine can inhibit the immune system. The longer a person smokes, the higher the probability of the development of his malignant lung diseases.
In addition to tobacco smoke, many hazardous substances such as cadmium, asbestos, chromium, Nickel, synthetic dyes. Asbestos is a building material, so the people working on the construction site, significant risk of developing lung cancer. Cadmium contact jewelers. This metal is included in solders. At risk of this disease also includes employees of garages (due to contact with exhaust gases), plasterers, painters, doctors, x-ray rooms.
Signs of lung cancer in the early stages are nonspecific. They can include weakness, fever, excessive sweating, weight loss, headaches, shortness of breath. During this period, patients do not seek medical attention. Often diagnosed at late stages, which significantly worsens the prognosis for health. Specific signs of cancer are:
- discharge of blood with phlegm;
- pain in the chest area;
- shortness of breath.
The most frequent symptom of cancer - cough. It occurs for no apparent reason. Cough is characterized by the following features: it is unvoiced, racking, exhausting, productive (wet), often amplified in cold weather or during exercise.Cough in lung cancer is caused by irritation of the bronchial mucosa. At the Central cancer sputum is yellow-green. In the early stages of cancer can be mistaken for pneumonia or bronchitis.
The growth of the tumor the symptoms are worse. Often patients complain of hemoptysis. The blood may be evenly mixed with phlegm, or is determined in the form of streaks. Sometimes hemoptysis causes the death of a sick person. Amid the presence of blood may develop anemia. In this situation it is necessary to exclude pulmonary tuberculosis. In that case, if the tumor invades the pleura, appear persistent chest pain. This symptom indicates the last stage of the disease.
Metastases in lung cancer
The cancer metastases are observed in the later stages. Cancer cells can spread throughout the body in three ways: by blood, through lymphatic vessels and implant. This files most often occurs lymphogenous metastasis. While metastatic lesions found in lymph nodes. First, the metastases occur in the place of division of lobar bronchus into segmental, then bronchopulmonary nodes are affected, further affected the root lymph nodes. Last cells metastasize to the subclavian lymph nodes. If the tumor ruptures close to blood vessels, metastasis is via blood. In lung cancer metastases can be detected in the liver, the kidneys, the second lung, adrenal gland, heart, esophagus, thymus, bones.
Often the affected the brain. Venous route of spread of cancer cells is observed in bone metastases, liver, kidneys. If affects the brain, it can occur cerebral and focal symptoms. Need to know what cancer in the lung may develop on the background of metastatic cells from other organs. For example, lung metastases may give breast cancer in women, colon, prostate. While metastatic foci in structure do not differ from the primary tumor.
Not always the source of metastasis found. Metastatic tumors may reach large size in a short time. In some cases they cause a patient's death due to poisoning of the body decay products.
Immediately prior to treatment is diagnosis. It includes a survey of the patient General examination, auscultation of the lungs, radiography, CT or MRI, bronchoscopy, sputum, urine and blood, thoracoscopy, biopsy of the tumor, ultrasound.
The most effective method of treatment of lung cancer - the operation(removal of a lobe, resection, pneumonectomy). During the operation, often removed lymph nodes. Radiation therapy is used after surgery or in case of presence of stage 3 or 4 cancer, when surgery is ineffective. When small cell cancer along with radiation therapy chemotherapy used. Appointed the following drugs: Methotrexate, Vincristine, Cyclophosphamid, Doxorubicin. Thus, lung cancer is a terrible disease that requires early detection and prompt treatment.