Methods of diagnosis of lung cancer
At lung cancer diagnosis in the initial stages has a certain complexity, as the survey is not able to display the presence of cancer or can put a completely different diagnosis. Over the past few years has increased the number of diseases that are directly linked to tumors in the respiratory tract, as a rule, lungs and bronchi. The risk group also includes men who work in mines or asbestos plants.
Why is developed lung cancer
The main cause of the disease, as in other diseases, is a genetic predisposition, that is, someone close to him at the time, was diagnosed with lung cancer. Moreover, to the same factors that can affect disease refers to the overall status of the patient, namely age category over 55 years and the presence of previously diagnosed pulmonary diseases, which escalated into a chronic form (chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia), or endocrine disorders in the body that are most often found in women.
The progression of this disease can affect a number of factors, for example:
- Smoking is the cause confirmed by numerous studies. Harmful substances that provoke the emergence of tumors arising from the Smoking of tobacco, with the smoke penetrate the lungs and are deposited on the delicate mucous membrane of the bronchi, which in turn leads to the destruction of living cells. Resin permanently trapped in the lungs, they do not have properties to dissolve and excreted from the body. They only start to form of accumulation, gradually coating your lungs with soot. If there is no will power or opportunity to give up such harmful habits as Smoking, it is necessary at least not to finish my cigarette, as the most powerful poisons accumulate in the end.
- Professional factor. Work in various factories is the reason that a large amount of dust deposited in the lungs.
- Constant exposure to the radioactive substances (x-ray irradiation).
- Air pollution. Every day in big cities inhabitants are constantly inhaling many harmful carcinogens that are from different factories are emitted into the atmosphere. The constant inhalation of such leads to the fact that the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract varies.
In addition, in the pathogenesis of lung cancer of great importance is assigned to the reduction processes which self-purify from the bronchi various dust and mucus through the work of ciliated epithelium and peristalsis of the bronchial tubes. Inthese cases there is a secretion of the bronchial mucosa, which promotes the violation of the drainage function of bronchi.
People who constantly work with such hazardous substances as arsenic, chromium or Nickel, are at risk in the first place. To contribute to the development of the disease can various inflammatory processes in the bronchi and lung parenchyma, various scarring that might occur after the patient in childhood suffered tuberculosis.
Symptoms of the disease
Symptoms symptoms of lung cancer are divided into two types:
- General: there is a constant feeling of weakness, sharply begins to lose weight, lose appetite, a feeling of sweating, is the unjustified sudden increase in body temperature.
Cough, as a rule, there is absolutely no reason at all. If the patient is very well monitored state of his health, he can easily notice how after a certain time has changed cough: it becomes more often, transforms phlegm. The cough may be similar to seizures, causeless or caused by the fact that the patient breathed in the cold air, or suffered excessive exercise. If the Central cancer is diagnosed, the patient has sputum is yellow, which is characteristic of inflammation in the lung tissue.
Coughing up blood is one of the most obvious signs of the disease. The presence of blood can be detected with saliva, either in the form of dark clots. Bleeding from the respiratory tract is so strong that, when not help the patient simply dies. Do not miss the fact that coughing up blood indicates various diseases that are related to the lungs.
The cause of dyspnea is the presence of a tumor in the lungs that affects the violation of gas exchange in the lung tissue and, therefore, worsens the conditions of ventilation. First, pain is not. Persistent pain more often observed in the latest stages of cancer.
Ways to detect disease
In the early stages to diagnose tumors is very difficult. Moreover, conventional analyses are unable to fully reflect the degree of development of pathological processes. Early diagnosis is very important as detection of the disease at its earliest stages can save the patient. The diagnostic method can be divided into two types: primary and secondary.
- The most basic way of howto determine lung cancer is x-ray. When the tumor causes impaired ventilation of the lung and occurs in close proximity to the narrowing of the bronchus on x-ray picture clearly visible place, where almost no transparency. If the tumor triggered the inflammatory process in the lymph vessels, it is possible to detect the exhaust from the darkening paths, which are located to the base of the affected lung.
- CT scan - this type of survey is prescribed only when they want to conduct special operations.
- MRI is assigned to identify a specific location where there is a tumor. This type of diagnosis does not lead to irradiation of the patient and quite efficient. The only caveat: this examination is strictly prohibited to people who have iron implants, artificial valves.
- PAT - with this method you can easily check the place of education in the other lung.
- Angiography finds places where there are gaps or complete blockage of blood vessels in the lung.
Another way to determine lung cancer are more tests. This type of diagnosis allows to determine the type of tumor. If there is a malignant tumor, it is the purpose of a number of analyses that show the degree of progression of the disease:
- Bronchoscopy reflects the presence of a tumor, even if it penetrated into the lumen of the bronchial tubes, helps to determine the infiltration of the bronchial walls and their compression.
- Morphological study: we take special sputum smears and swabs, in the lab it is investigated whether there are cancer cells.
- Biopsy: taken tshipi tumors in order to identify if there are any cancer cells.
- The study of blood. This method is used not to reveal the diagnosis, and to simply confirm it. The fact that there are tumors, it also indicates the level of hemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A study of the so-called tumor markers is a special performance, a level which indicates that there is a tumor.
You must remember that timely appeal to qualified specialists will help to diagnose tumors at earlier stages, which in turn can save lives.
Do not neglect health.