Methods of diagnostics of bronchial asthma
Competent diagnosis of bronchial asthma is an extremely important aspect in the treatment of this difficult disease. About five percent of the total population (both women and men) affected by this pathology.
The mechanism of occurrence of violations
Chronic inflammation in the Airways makes the bronchial tubes overly sensitive. The reasons for these different processes, for example, infectious or allergic origin. It is not excluded congenital predisposition. In the chronic form of the disease in the bronchi degenerative changes occur in their structure: the muscle membrane thicken, begins to occur an active secretion of mucus, etc.
Possible allergens include domestic dust and living in her dust mites, particles of animal and vegetable origin. The reason for increased sensitivity to certain compounds mainly lies at the genetic level. Additionally, allergic asthma can cause the air to extreme temperatures, and physical or emotional stress. An inadequate reaction may begin immediately after contact with blood or allergenic agent in a few hours.
Clinical manifestations of bronchial asthma
At the beginning of the asthma issue such clinical symptoms as dry cough, scant sputum production. The coughing usually occurs at night or early in the morning. This is due to increased tonus of the bronchial muscles. Early breathing difficulties, are observed.
As a rule, the patient is immediately tapped for the presence of chest wheezing. They can be different in intensity and height.
In the further course of the disease begins to occur intermittently with paroxysmal shortness of breath. The reason for the sudden suffocation can be one of the mentioned allergens, excessive excitement or fear.
Shortly before the attack there is a runny nose and my throat starts to tickle and skin to itch. After comes the difficulty in breathing, especially on exhalation. With this, one must hang back in my hands to facilitate the work of the respiratory muscles.
In this state, rattling chest, you can hear a high hollow sound. It means that in the lungs has accumulated a large amount of air. Continue the attack, maybe a couple of minutes or hours. The end of it, as a rule, is characterized by intense coughing.
An extreme degree of asthma - status asthmaticus, in which the symptoms are manifested much brighter. In addition to the main features added bluish discoloration of the skin, frequent and irregular rhythm of the heartbeat, sudden drowsiness and apathy causedinhibition of Central nervous system function. This is a very dangerous condition, threatening asthmatic fatalities, e.g. due to respiratory arrest.
Diagnosis of bronchial asthma
This is not a simple process that requires a number of special studies. The survey primarily includes a survey of patient and examination. This allows the doctor to draw some preliminary conclusions. The main attention is necessarily paid to symptoms of the disease, they manifest depending on the severity of the inflammatory process of the bronchi. Any patient with symptoms of an individual nature.
Diagnosis of bronchial asthma in children and adults involves a variety of research and drafting of the General history of pathology. Along with many other methods applied peakflowmetry and spirometry - study of lung function. This examination of the bronchi allows to reveal the degree of obstruction. Spirogram allows us to trace the action of bronchodilators - medications to relieve spasms in the bronchi.
In certain periods of the disease subsides, and it is quite difficult to detect, to do this, hold provocative testing. If for certain active substances, in particular histamine and acetylcholine from bronchial tubes has a sensitivity, it must manifest itself during the test.
In studies of the respiratory function, to determine the degree of development of the pathology and pattern of its occurrence is the number of bronchodilators samples. They allow you to select the most appropriate medications and further treatment. Without preliminary tests it is not possible.
This procedure is done in the morning on an empty stomach. It is not recommended to be nervous, to physically exert himself or to smoke in order to avoid distortion of the picture. Sitting the patient performs the few required respiratory manipulations in parallel, they are processed by computer and displays the result.
Such diagnostic techniques are necessarily conducted at the time of admission to a job where there is an increased risk of getting lung diseases.
Differential diagnosis in bronchial asthma of allergic type, is required to identify the allergen provocateur. The complete exclusion of all contact with him allows you to completely eliminate all asthma symptoms. This is a small scratch on the skin, which is a prospective allergen. If there is a reaction of the tissue around the site causing substances are red and inflamed. This means that the substance is desired, and should be deleted with him any contact. Also takenthe blood sample for the detection of specific antibodies produced by the allergen, and increased numbers of eosinophils.
It is important to determine the ratio of the volume of expired air and the total capacity of the lungs - this will reveal how impassable the bronchi. Modern technologies allow to identify these figures in the home, with the help of special devices, to measure the volume of air during exhalation. This analysis is important for determining optimal therapy of bronchial asthma.
Also conduct radiography of the chest. This will help to identify possible pulmonary emphysema (increased transparency) and pulmonary fibrosis, in which connective tissue in the lungs begin to rapidly grow. This is more common for asthma of infectious origin.
Bronchial asthma - a diagnosis for life?
Many have a reasonable question: is it possible to remove the diagnosis of asthma if symptoms and attacks are long gone, and restrictions remained?
It really is for a person with such a diagnosis closed a door: army, sports groups, production with a certain viciousness, but the good salary, etc. of the Disease is already there, and mark in the medical book remained, which negates a lot of plans.
For this you need to pass additional tests in the clinic with all modern diagnostic tools and qualified personnel. Because often, in the absence of appropriate conditions and insufficient professional level, a doctor makes a wrong diagnosis. And even if he was not mistaken at that time, then in a few years everything could change.
Man is a unique self-healing system of organs and tissues capable of complete healing, especially when lifestyle change, which directly affects the condition. Therefore, if symptoms have not been observed, it should be safe to go for another examination.