The diagnosis of COPD: how to treat and that it
When diagnosed with COPD, what it is, many do not know. COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Obstruction is the obstruction of the respiratory channels. The disease provokes a partial restriction of airflow in the airway. Obstruction is a combination of two diseases: chronic bronchitis and emphysema (when lung tissue loses its elasticity).
COPD occurs mostly in countries with low living standards, where the vast number of population there is no physical possibility for treatment of the disease. From this disease annually in the world dies of a huge number of people.
Obstructive disease leads to irreversible consequences. They represent a real and serious threat to human life. Insufficient intake of air takes all the time progressing. COPD in medicine is considered an incurable disease, his treatment is only to slow down the pace of development of the disease.
Classification of the disease
This disease klassificeret according to the degree or stage of severity:
- The first stage is easy the course of the disease. The patient does not notice changes in the lungs. Perhaps periodic cough.
- Second degree is considered to be moderate. The disease manifests as shortness of breath, worse after physical exertion.
- Third degree – a severe form. Progressive airflow limitation. Shortness of breath is getting worse.
- Stage four – very severe stage of the disease. Obstruction of airflow in the lungs is a threat to the life of the patient. His condition is much worse. Perhaps the development of pulmonary heart disease - an increase in the right chamber of the heart.
The causes of the disease
The reasons, provoking obstructive disease:
- Air pollution in residential areas at the place of work.
- Polluted atmosphere, the presence of dust and harmful substances.
- Previously transferred infectious diseases of the respiratory organs: bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia.
- Tobacco smoke that enters the lungs during Smoking and inhaling tobacco smoke from others Smoking people.
- In rare cases, genetic disorders.
Symptoms of pathology
The main signs characterizing the disease:
- Chronic cough, breathlessness, abnormal sputum and a decline in physical activity.
- The earliest symptom is a cough. Initially he was not suspicious, as it is intermittent. When the disease getsfurther development, the cough becomes literally non-stop, even tormenting at night.
- Along with the cough, another early symptom is phlegm. First selection quite small. Then mocratie selection to acquire a generous nature with the presence of pus.
- A later symptom of the disease is shortness of breath. Exhale is given to the patient heavier than breath. Shortness of breath may occur many years later from the beginning of the first symptoms of obstructive disease.
- The disease is exacerbated by SARS, the various physical exertion. Moreover, when a small load there is a lack of air, and with significant load – respiratory failure.
Other symptoms: changes in the heart, aching heart pain, muscle weakness, pains and aches in the joints and bones, utholdenhet fingers, the bulge nails; blueness of the lips, the fingertips.
Diagnosis of chronic obstruction
In the early stages of COPD should distinguish between the COB and BA (bronchial asthma), because at this time, require fundamentally different approaches to the treatment of each of these diseases. The most difficult differential diagnosis of BA and COB. Reliable diagnosis is established by the pulmonologist, using the differential method. Information is collected with patient's complaints. Is a spirometry test, which helps determine the real picture of the functioning of the lungs. Appointed x-ray examination of the chest, fiber-optic bronchoscopy, heart ultrasound, ECG, EchoCG. It is necessary to take sputum, blood on biochemical research.
The treatment of the disease
After an accurate diagnosis the attending doctor prescribes a maintenance therapy. The disease has a progressive course and gradually leads to disability. Therefore, it is important to try to remove the causes contributing to the further development of the disease. In this important role played by the desire of the patient to perform therapeutic measures, and socio-economic conditions.
- The first thing to stop Smoking, if the patient has this addiction. This should be done regardless of the smoke or the degree of obstruction. Termination of contact with tobacco smoke in the respiratory tract significantly slow down the destruction of lung cells.
- Bronchodilators – for expansion of bronchial tubes by expanding the smooth muscles and walls. These include salbutamol, fenoterol.
- Antibiotics in case of worsening of the disease. This cephalosporins, penicillins.
- Corticosteroids – hormonal drugs that block the resulting bouts of insufficient breathing. Recommendedthe prednisolone.
- Inhibitors (prevent destruction) is anti-inflammatory drugs. In particular peculiarities.
- Mucolytic drugs. They are well thin the mucus and help flush it out. Usually prescribed Ambroxol, Bromhexine.
- It is recommended to use antioxidants, Immunostimulants.
- You can do inhalations with the addition of bronchodilators. By this method, the drug enters directly into the lungs for greater therapeutic effect.
- Developed a special program, through which the patient learns to control seizures. Training doctors monitor the implementation of the technique of correct breathing methods to ease the attacks of obstruction. They give advice on proper diet of the patient.
- Annually, patients must undergo mandatory vaccination against the influenza virus.
- During exacerbation of the disease is assigned to oxygen.
- Shown simple physical exercises; very useful swimming, leisurely Hiking.
- The patient can not breathe dry, cold, noxious air.
- If a patient with overweight, it is imperative to lose weight.
In extreme severe cases, surgical intervention: in this case, is removed the affected area of lung tissue or lung transplants.
Prevention of the disease
Important in the prevention of disease – Smoking cessation. You should try to avoid any contact with tobacco smoke in the respiratory tract: to move away from a nearby Smoking; out of the room, where the smoke, or it is well ventilate, etc.
You need to eat right, eat more fresh vegetables and fruits. You need to improve your immunity and protective forces of an organism. It is necessary to treat various infectious diseases of the respiratory system.
Working in hazardous industries, need to comply with safety regulations and labor protection. Annually should undergo medical check-UPS.