Types of pulmonary fibrosis and lung treatment methods
Fibrosis of lungs is the pathological replacement of lung tissue by connective parenchyma due to prolonged degenerative or inflammatory processes in the lungs.
Due to the proliferation of connective tissue occurs, the deformation of the bronchi, a sharp compaction and scarring of the pulmonary parenchyma. This, in turn, contributes to a violation of the ventilation process in the lung and causes changes in their normal volume.
Classification of the disease
There are following types of diseases:
- Peribronchial fibrosis - an abnormal growth of connective tissue around the bronchi, the lobules of the lung and blood vessels.
- Reticular sclerosis - the defeat of the reticular stroma without the formation of fibrous tissue.
- Widespread pulmonary fibrosis and sclerotic changes in the lungs.
- Pulmonary fibrosis - pronounced degree of sclerosis of the lungs.
- Pleurodynia pulmonary fibrosis, which is characterized by the development of sclerotic process, extending from the pleura.
- Posttuberculosis pulmonary fibrosis. Because the transferred pulmonary tuberculosis is growth of connective tissue, and irregular emphysema. As the outcome of primary lung lesions is the formation of the lobar and segmental forms of the disease (metatuberculosis pulmonary fibrosis).
- Basal sclerosis - the growth of connective tissue occurs in the root region of the lungs.
Classification based on the extent of the spread and development of disease highlights the following forms:
- Scattered or diffuse form of pulmonary fibrosis characterized by involvement of 1 or 2 lobes of the lung, which contributes to the disruption of the structure of the tissue seal. As a result, lung capacity is greatly diminished, while the natural gas exchange.
- Segmental and lobar (focal) pulmonary fibrosis. In this form of the disease is induration, however, is significantly lower, and the number of affected sites. In a detailed study notes the presence of atelectatic plots allocated fibrous exudate. In addition, the formation of sklerozirovanie foci with purulent areas.
Depending on the degree of substitution process, the disease is classified into:
- Terrasny pulmonary fibrosis - due to full replacement of the alveoli of the bronchi and blood vessels connective education is offset from the bodieslocated in the affected area.
- Fibrotic pulmonary fibrosis. It is noted the formation of individual sections of the seal with the strands of connective tissue.
- Forgetting form - a pathological process that contributes to the seal of light, resulting in a violation of the pneumatic spaces of the body.
The pathogenesis of the disease
Pulmonary fibrosis in most cases occurs against a background of existing related lung disease or outcome. There are the following main causes that trigger the disease:
- the penetration of light in a foreign substance, contributing to the emergence of aspiration pneumonia;
- due to the complications of chronic bronchitis;
- diseases caused by parasitic fungi and infection with the tuberculosis pathogen;
- pathology characterized by the development of fibrous process in lungs;
- inflammatory disease of the alveolar Department due to allergic reactions - allergic alveolitis;
- infectious viral pathogens and associated diseases;
- as a complication of accidental penetration of a foreign body in the lungs.
The mechanism of origin and form of the disease primarily depends on the causes contributing to the emergence of the disease. However, there are a number of predisposing disease factors, the main ones are:
- violation of gas exchange in the lungs;
- the change in the drainage function of bronchi;
- violation of blood flow in the pulmonary tissues;
- destruction of the alveolar bone.
Symptoms of the disease
The clinical picture with diffuse pulmonary fibrosis manifested by the following symptoms:
- Because of the significant reduction in ventilation of the alveolar tissue observed cyanosis of the skin.
- The appearance of breathlessness, at first during exercise and later at rest.
- Also a typical manifestation of the lack of ventilation is thickening of the phalanges of the hands and feet.
- Often diffuse pulmonary fibrosis is accompanied by chronic bronchitis. Marked sputum purulent nature, which are secreted during a cough.
- General weakness.
- Sudden weight loss.
- A strong cough.
With limited fibrosis symptoms weak cough with scanty mucous allocation. In some cases, the diagnosis may be ceasing of the anterior thorax.
Quite often in this diseasediscover a number of signs pointing to the development of cirrhosis of the lungs, such as:
- the change of physiological form of the thorax;
- strain of the intercostal muscles;
- the offset position of the heart.
Pathological changes in the bronchi, alveoli and blood vessels contribute to the dysfunction of pulmonary ventilation, arterial hypoxemia, disruption of hemodynamics.
How to diagnose pathology?
Effective method of diagnosis in various diseases of the lung is the radiographic examination of the lungs. With its help it is possible to identify changes in the pulmonary tissues, the degree of damage, localization of the pathological process.
Clinical and radiological picture of pulmonary fibrosis appears quite differently because of the presence of concomitant inflammatory diseases.
On x-ray marked change of size of the affected part of the lung. In connection with the deformation of the lung wall is observed mesh-knotted type of lung pattern.
At bronchoscopic study, often showing signs of chronic bronchitis, which is manifested in a significant expansion of the bronchi and their divisions.
In the study of the functional state of bronchopulmonary system with marked reduction of bronchial obstruction and respiratory indices.
How to get rid of disease?
In diffuse pulmonary fibrosis treatment, the purpose of which is to eliminate the impact of harmful factors. To do this, the patient often prescribers synthetic origin - glucocorticoids and means of anti-inflammatory action.
With limited fibrosis, without pronounced clinical signs, active therapy is not required. In the case of the disease with exacerbations on the background of inflammatory process used to treat drugs expectorant action, antimicrobials, bronchodilators. With the aim of improving drainage of the tracheobronchial tree is assigned a therapeutic bronchoscopy.
The detection of decompensation of heart used heart preparations of glycosides and drugs containing potassium.
In addition, a sufficiently effective therapeutic method for this disease is complex physical therapy. It is based include the use of oxygen therapy, therapeutic massage of the chest, various physiotherapeutic procedures.
the pulmonary fibrosis">a relatively new method of treatment that allows you to restore the lung structure and to eliminate the dysfunction of pulmonary gas exchange is the use of stem cells from umbilical cord blood.
The speed of progression and degree of the dysfunction of the respiratory system and cardiopulmonary failure will depend on future forecasting. In the racemose form small cavities at the periphery of the lung fields is rapidly complicated by respiratory failure that leads to the development of emphysematous heart.
Pulmonary fibrosis is quite dangerous, because it leads to impaired lung function and significantly reduces quality of life.
Late therapy is often a cardio-pulmonary insufficiency that in the development of concomitant infection can lead to death.
The main preventive measures that help to reduce the likelihood of fibrosis, are prevention of respiratory diseases, timely treatment of inflammatory, infectious and respiratory diseases.
It is necessary to limit the effects on the body of harmful substances. The use of a respirator in hazardous occupations will significantly reduce the risk of various respiratory diseases. Avoid contact with the identified patients.
Complete cessation of Smoking greatly improves a patient's condition, since this habit affects the lungs and contributes to the development of diseases of the respiratory system.
Gentle exercise and hardening help a speedy recovery.
Pulmonary disease pulmonary fibrosis is a rare disease that is not fully understood. It is very dangerous pathological process and when not treated may lead to irreversible consequences. Therefore, knowing what is pulmonary fibrosis, can prevent serious complications caused by this disorder.