Causes and symptoms of pneumothorax
A disease such as pneumothorax, symptoms, signs and causes has multiple. In General, you first need to clearly understand what constitutes the disease. Pneumothorax is a pathological disease in which the presence of air in a pleural cavity. The pleural cavity called the outer lung shell, namely the cavity formed by the pleural sheets. In a healthy person the area of the pleural cavity is in a state of negative pressure that is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the respiratory system. In cases where the pleural sheets are damaged, the air penetrates and the negative pressure is equalized to atmospheric, and in some cases exceeds it. To damage, the consequence of which is the ingress of air into the pleural cavity include: rupture of the bronchi, the external violation of the integrity of the chest, divide the pulmonary area.
Over time, due to the ingress of air into the cavity and pressure changes, there is a strong compression of the lung, whereby it subsides and then can no longer participate in the respiratory process. If the volume of air trapped in the pleural cavity, a very high pressure in the intact lung, which leads to its displacement. In addition, when a large amount of displacement can be and other important organs like the heart and major blood vessels. This leads to violation of not only the respiratory functions but also failure in the mechanism of blood circulation. When a large volume of air without urgent medical care prone to pneumothorax, the patient may die in just a few minutes. It is essential to identify signs of pneumothorax, as soon as they appeared: timely medical intervention can prevent serious consequences of this disease.
Causes of pneumothorax
There are many causes of this illness. In General, the reasons for the appearance of a pneumothorax is divided into the following forms:
- Spontaneous form of the disease. In this case, there is an unexplained gap of bronchial walls and the body. The gap is not caused by any damage. It occurs spontaneously. In turn, this form of the disease is divided into three Podgorny: primary, secondary and recurrent. The primary form of the disease appears in people with a congenital weakness of the lung tissue. In this case, the gap can occur from coughing, sneezing and during any physical activity. Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs if there are destructive processes in pulmonary tissue, inthe cases when a person is exposed to severe pathological diseases like pulmonary gangrene, abscess, etc. Recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax involves the re-emergence of the disease.
- The traumatic form of the disease. Pneumothorax the form appears with various injuries of the chest, as a result of which the damaged lung tissue. Rupture can occur not only when a penetrating wound to the chest, but when blunt force damage to this area.
- Iatrogenic form of the disease. This form presupposes the existence of medical causes of disease. This may be a consequence of carrying out a lung biopsy, the procedure, when the analysis is taken a small section of the cloth. The disease may be the consequence of pulmonary or pleural puncture, pleural cavity when pricked with a needle to drain the foreign pathological substances. The installation of the subclavian catheter can also affect the development of this disease, as the artificial ventilation of the pulmonary region.
- Artificial form of the disease. In this form the air is introduced into the pleural cavity especially for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Symptoms and forms of disease
In addition, the pneumothorax is divided in its origin, it can be divided according to other principles.
Each form of this disease has its own specific characteristics.
So, pneumothorax shares and the volume of air in the affected part, and the degree of attenuation length of the affected lung:
- Partial, partial or limited pneumothorax. You'll be a small amount of air in the cavity, and partial lungs.
- Total or complete pneumothorax. Different full contraction of the affected lung.
Divided the disease, and propagation:
- Unilateral pneumothorax. Is lose any light may be partial or total.
- Bilateral pneumothorax. Differs both lungs. A case of total bilateral pneumothorax, the patient may die in the shortest time.
The disease can be differentiated also by the presence or absence of complications:
- Complicated pneumothorax. At the same time with this disease may be emphysema, bleeding and pleurisy.
- Uncomplicated pneumothorax. The disease appears and runs independently.
The disease can be categorized by contact with the external environment:
- Closed pneumothorax. This type of disease differs in that it does not messageexternal environment, whereby the volume trapped in the pleural cavity air is not increased. It should be noted that this form takes the easiest, and the air may disappear on their own.
- Open pneumothorax. Characterized by formation of a defect of the outer wall, resulting in unrestricted communication with the external environment. It should be noted that the volume increases when you inhale air, but it decreases when you exhale. Under such circumstances the pressure in the pleural cavity becomes equal to atmospheric, resulting in lung collapse, turn off the affected lung of respiratory function.
- A tension pneumothorax. This form of the disease is also called valve. It should be noted that the effects of valvular pneumothorax are the most severe. In this form the valve is formed a structure that freely allows air into the cavity during inspiration, but does not produce it during exhalation, whereby the air is gradually accumulated. In this form of the disease pressure in the pleural cavity progressively increases and begins to exceed atmospheric, which causes loss of light, and irritation of the nerves of the chest wall and displacement of other organs of the mediastinum.
In addition, it is necessary to note the following symptoms of pneumothorax:
- The sudden appearance of sharp pain, which manifest themselves in the breath, in addition, the pain may be in the shoulder.
- The emergence of problems with breathing, shortness of breath, difficult breathing, shortness of breath.
- In some cases, there is the emergence of a strong dry cough.
- Heart rhythm gradually quickens.
- The appearance of cold sticky sweat all over the body.
- Occasional fear.
- Bluish discoloration of the skin if there are problems with blood circulation.
- With the open form of the disease, there was a whistling in the wound area. When you inhale you can feel podmazyvanie air punched parts, when you exhale the air out of wounds, foaming blood.
Treatment of pathology
As the treatment uses the following methods:
- In closed form of the disease, if the course of the disease is not complicated, the air gradually resolve on their own without external intervention.
- For air exhaust is made puncture of the pleural cavity.
- The drainage procedure of the pleural cavity. Establishes a special tube to release the air.
- Surgery. Inthis case is the procedure of suturing the rupture of the bronchi, lung tissue, etc.
- When severe pain used pain relievers.
- You may need to use oxygen at which the air will be supplied by special tubes.
As practice shows, the pneumothorax is often returned with new complications. It is therefore very important to seek the root causes of disease and receive proper treatment.