Causes and symptoms of sinusitis
Those who had to feel the symptoms of sinusitis, which starts with a common cold, is confirm that the usual stuffy nose is nothing when compared with this disease. So, what are the symptoms of sinusitis?
The common cold is familiar to all from childhood, and we all know how that unpleasant feeling. Although the disease can be enjoyable?
This disease is one form of sinusitis affecting the sinuses. You need to recognize the symptoms of sinusitis in a timely manner, because of all of the varieties of this disease he is in the most severe form. When sinusitis is inflamed mucous membrane of the frontal sinus, located in dangerous proximity to the eye socket that often leads to serious complications.
There are two stages of the disease: chronic and acute sinusitis.
What is characteristic of acute frontal sinusitis
This stage is characterized primarily by permanent dull headache, which cannot be ignored painkillers. Usually the pain is concentrated in the region above the eyebrows and can become stronger when rotating head or pressure. Can also be unpleasant to look at bright light, to translate the look of some objects on others. The pain can be passed on eyes, cheekbones, teeth, cheeks or ears. Symptom of sinusitis is a cold that won't go away seven to ten days without any improvement of the patient's condition, accompanied by mucous or purulent secretions are green or yellow. This is accompanied by the leaking of mucus at the back of the throat and copious sputum. Body temperature may rise to 38-39 degrees, chills possible.
Distinguish catarrhal and suppurative acute frontal sinusitis. Catarrhal characterized by nasal congestion and copious secretions, may end in recovery, or go to purulent frontal sinusitis, which is characterized by the accumulation of purulent secretions. Any of the shapes can be two-sided and one-sided (one or two inflammation of the sinuses).
Internal signs of sinusitis identify can only be a specialist after x-rays, which necessarily should be treated when the first symptoms of sinusitis
If the disease is not being treated in time, it will become chronic. Its symptoms differ from the symptoms of sinusitis in its acute form, but can also deliver a lot of discomfort. Headache now localized only in the region of the sinus and becomes less intense. Stuffy nose is accompanied by copious purulent secretions from the nose, whichaccumulated over the night and in the morning go into the nasopharynx, which causes painful expectoration of large volume of sputum patients. Appears twang and bad breath, the smell is greatly reduced.
The causes of the disease
The risk group includes those who are often sick with colds and launches, not recovers. Inflamed nasal mucosa in the cold much it swells, blocking the drainage pathway. Violated the outflow of mucous secretions, which creates a beneficial environment for bacteria to grow.
So, the reasons for sinusitis may be:
- the infection in the frontal sinus when running acute rhinitis (runny nose);
- viral disease (influenza, diphtheria, measles and others) that caused the inflammation in the sinuses;
- complications of influenza and other acute respiratory diseases;
- local trauma, which could cause inflammation in that area.
Depending on the causes of the disease can distinguish rhinogenous sinusitis arising from a cold; hematogenous the sinusitis that develops due to infection in the frontal sinus; traumatic frontal sinusitis, resulting from local trauma.
Treatment of sinusitis
For treatment it is necessary to ensure the full drainage of pus from the sinuses and eliminate the causative agent of the disease.
There are pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of acute sinusitis.
The first is:
- The purpose vasoconstrictor nose drops that reduce swelling of the mucous membrane, help to ensure the outflow of fluid from the sinuses.
- When severe inflammation may require treatment of sinusitis with antibiotics in the form of containing sprays, tablets or injections.
- The patient can be prescribed antihistamines if the disease develops due to allergic reactions; mucolytics, which help dilute content of sinuses.
In simple situations, after such treatment from the axils of excreted slime.
Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of sinusitis are applied in more advanced cases.
- Trepanopuncture – puncture of the frontal sinus for removal from the stagnant pus, flushing it and drug administration. This method is used when the patient is suffering from unbearable headaches and has his obvious signs of intoxication (fever, malaise). Trepanopuncture is difficultand is performed only in a hospital after preliminary x-ray studies.
- The patient can be assigned to various lavage solutions. They can be herbal, salt or antiseptic. Such washing the patient can conduct at home by yourself if it has special equipment for this, now it can be purchased in pharmacies. ENT doctors perform lavage of the sinuses with the introduction and removal of them drug solutions (the so-called "cuckoo").
- Lately, as an alternative to trepanopuncture applied setting Yamik catheter. Through the nose into the sinuses introduced a rubber catheter, which is suctioning the contents of the sinuses and enter them medications. Few hospitals can boast of having the devices to carry out this procedure.
- Physical therapy can be assigned at the time of outflow of fluid, when the patient approaches recovery.
Can be assigned to restorative drugs. In the presence of ocular or intracranial complications used surgical treatment.
In chronic sinusitis the patient may be given such treatments as:
- Lavage medicinal solutions.
- Long-term treatment of sinusitis with antibiotics in small doses.
Steroid hormones in the form of nasal sprays recently used increasingly, as it has proven its safety and effectiveness.
If conservative methods prove ineffective in the fight against this disease or if there are any defects in the nasal cavity, can be applied to endoscopic surgery. Simultaneously with the main operation the defects if any.
Some medical institutions are still held mutilation that removes the entire mucosa the part of the sinus, then loses all of its functions. Indications for such operations is extremely small.
Prevention of sinusitis
For the prevention of sinusitis should be promptly and completely cure the flu, any respiratory diseases, diseases of the nose. You also need to avoid hypothermia, do the tempering, take multivitamins, stop Smoking and alcohol.
Complications caused by sinusitis
To chronic lack of oxygen (hypoxia) may hold a permanent stuffy nose. This leads to loss of memory, health, ability to concentrate. In the transition of disease in the eye may be decreased vision, tearing and photophobia (fear of bright light). It may cause inflammation of the skull bones, soft tissues of the face. There is a risk of death.